32 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
For mapping studies of genomes, most of which were far along before
2000, the three-stage method was often used. Which of the following is
the usual order in which the stages were performed, assuming some
overlap of the three?
What is the difference between a linkage map and a physical
How is a physical map of the genome of an organism achieved?
Which of the following most correctly describes a shotgun technique
for sequencing a genome?
The biggest problem with the shotgun technique is its tendency to underestimate the size of the genome. Which of the following might best account for this?
A) skipping some of the clones to be sequenced
What is metagenomics?
Which procedure is not required when the shotgun approach to sequencing is modified as sequencing by synthesis, in which many small fragments are sequenced simultaneously?
A) use of restriction enzymes
What is bioinformatics?
What is proteomics?
Bioinformatics can be used to scan sequences for probable genes
looking for start and stop sites for transcription and for
translation, for probable splice sites, and for sequences known to be
found in other known genes. Such sequences containing these elements
A microarray known as a GeneChip, with most now-known human protein
coding sequences, has been developed to aid in the study of human
cancer by first comparing two to three subsets of cancer subtypes.
What kind of information might be gleaned from this GeneChip to aid in
What is gene annotation in bioinformatics?
Why is it unwise to try to relate an organism's
complexity with its size or number of cells?
Fragments of DNA have been extracted from the remnants of extinct
woolly mammoths, amplified, and sequenced. These can now be used
If humans have 2,900 Mb, a specific member of the lily family has
120,000 Mb, and a yeast has ~13 Mb, why can't this data allow us to
order their evolutionary significance?
Which of the following is a representation of gene density?
Why might the cricket genome have 11 times as many base pairs as that
of Drosophila melanogaster?
The comparison between the number of human genes and those of other
animal species has led to many conclusions, including
Barbara McClintock, who achieved fame for discovering that genes
could move within genomes, had her meticulous work ignored for nearly
four decades, but eventually won the Nobel Prize. Why was her work so
What is the most probable explanation for the continued presence of
pseudogenes in a genome such as our own?
What characteristic of short tandem repeat DNA makes it useful for
Alu elements account for about 10% of the human genome. What does
A multigene family is composed of
In comparing the genomes of humans and those of other higher
primates, it is seen that humans have a large metacentric pair we call
chromosome 2 among our 46 chromosomes, whereas the other primates of
this group have 48 chromosomes and any pair like the human chromosome
2 pair is not present; instead, the primate groups each have two pairs
of midsize acrocentric chromosomes. What is the most likely
Which of the following can be duplicated in a genome?
Unequal crossing over during prophase I can result in one sister
chromosome with a deletion and another with a duplication. A mutated
form of hemoglobin, known as hemoglobin Lepore, is known in the human
population. Hemoglobin Lepore has a deleted set of amino acids. If it
was caused by unequal crossing over, what would be an expected
When does exon shuffling occur?
What are genomic hot spots?
In order to determine the probable function of a particular sequence
of DNA in humans, what might be the most reasonable approach?
Homeotic genes contain a homeobox sequence that is highly conserved
among very diverse species. The homeobox is the code for that domain
of a protein that binds to DNA in a regulatory developmental process.
Which of the following would you then expect?
Which of the following studies would not likely be characterized as eco-devo?
A recent report has indicated several conclusions about comparisons
of our genome with that of Neanderthals. This report concludes, in
part, that, at some period in evolutionary history, there was an
admixture of the two genomes. This is evidenced by