30 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
What is formed when electrolytes dissolve and dissociate?
What are the functions of Ions
What is the term “milliequivalent” ( mEq ) used to measure?
The number of electrical charges (electrolytes) in blood serum and other solutions
Denoting the number of mEq per liter of solution gives the concentration of _______ or ______ in a given volume of solution
Anions or cations
A milliequivalent is ?/1000 of an equivalent?
What is the mEq of sodium in normal blood plasma?
136 - 146 mEq/L
What is the mEq of spotassium in normal blood plasma?
3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
What determines the osmotic contribution of a substance?
The number of milliequivalents
Osmotic forces have a definite influence on movement of _____ between body compartments
Osmotic pressure exerted by proteins on either side of the capillary
membrane to move water
Net movement of fluids is controlled by all forces ____1_____ minus all forces ___2____
Compares the forces at the arterial end of a capillary with those at the venous end
Normally there is nearly as much fluid _________ as there is filtered.
Net pressure at the arterial end of a capillary is ________
Net pressure at the venus end of a capillary is _________
-9 mmHg (reabsorption)
On average, how much fluid that is filtered is reabsorbed?
Starling Forces (photo)
A major homeostatic challenge is keeping the ____ concentration (pH) of body fluids at an appropriate level.
Metabolic reactions often produce a huge _____ of H+
What would happen if homeostatic mechanisms failed to keep the H+ concentration at an appropriate level?
The pH of body fluids could quickly rise to a lethal level
Which systems help maintain the pH of systemic arterial blood?
What is a healthy pH concentration of systemic arterial blood?
7.35 - 7.45
What do buffer systems do to balance pH
Act quickly to temporarily bind excess H+ sequestering the highly reactive ions until they can be permanently excreted
How does breathing assist in balancing pH
CO2 is exhaled, correcting pH
What do the kidney's do to balance pH
Occurs whenever CO2 accumulates because of hypoventilation
Occurs whenever non-respiratory acids accumulate
Occurs whenever too much CO2
is lost because of hyperventilation
Occurs whenever non-respiratory acids are lost
Which are more common and serious? States of acidosis or states of alkalosis?
states of acidosis