76 notecards = 19 pages (4 cards per page)
a dynamic, two-way process of sending and receving messages
Messages may be:
verbal, nonverbal, or both; may involve 2 or more people.
Conscious internal dialogue; known as self-talk
occurs between 2 or more people; face to face conversation between 2 people is the most frequent form
interaction that occurs among several people
occurs when you engage in an exchange of ideas with 2 or more individuals at the same time
a unique form of group communication; speaker addresses a doze to hundreds of people, with varying degrees of interaction
Communication has 2 major components:
content and process
Content of communication describes:
the actual subject matter, words, gestures and substance of the message
Process refers to:
the act of sending, receiving, interpreting and reacting to the message
The communication process has 5 elements:
sender, message, receiver, feedback and channel
begins the conversation to deliver a message to another person
refers to the process of selecting the words, gestures, tone of voice, signs and symbols used to transmit the message
the verbal and/or nonverbal information the sender communicates
the medium used to send the message
the observer, listener, and interpreter of the message
may be verbal, nonverbal or both; once the receiver has received and interpreted the message, he may be stimulated to respond by providing feedback to the sender.
the use of spoken and written words to send a message
It is your responsibility to deliver messages that the client can understand, therefore:
use medical terms only when you are certain the listener understands them
the literal meaning of the word
the implied or emotional meaning of the word
reflects the feeling behind the words
Clarity in communications requires:
that you select words that convey the intended meaning and that you make sure your spoken words and the nonverbal language send the same message.
Timing and relevance:
consider the presence of others, communication is effective when both parties value the interaction and find the discussion relevant, the interaction must allow time for response
Give information only if:
you are certain of the facts
If a situation makes you uncomfortable:
it is better to acknowledge your discomfort than to risk loss of credibility
open and honest with patients
To be credible:
your nonverbal communication must match your spoken words
Laughter can create physiological changes that contribute to:
well-being and provide an emotional release in a tense situation, thus positively influencing the patient's attitude and healing
Nonverbal communication is the:
exchange of messages without the use of words
What factors affect communication?
environment, developmental variations, gender, personal space, territoriality, sociocultural factors, roles & relationships
Communication is most successful in an environment that is:
quiet, private, free of unpleasant smells and at a comfortable temperature
You will need to modify your communication strategies to:
fit your client's developmental level
Women tend to communication to form:
connections and establish relationships
Male communication styles typically focus on:
goals, tasks, and maintaining independence and favorable positions in hierarchy.
People vary in the amount of:
physical space they are comfortable with when communicating
What are the 4 distinct distances influencing communication?
Intimate distance, personal distance, social distance, and public distance
Intimate distance is:
the area immediately surrounding people that they define as their private space.
Personal distance is:
a distance of 18 inches to 4 feet.
Social distance is:
a distance of 4 to 12 feet.
Public distance is:
considered to be beyond 12 feet.
Territoriality refers to:
the space and things that an individual identifies as belonging to him.
facial expressions, nonverbal communication and even the selection of whom to interact with are affected.
A passive approach:
avoids conflict and allows others to take the lead
forces others to lose
A nonassertive style:
communicating their needs in a style that assures them that they are not telling them what to do.
Assertive communication is:
the expression of a wide range of positive and negative thoughts and feelings in a style that is direct, open, honest, spontaneous, responsible and nonjudgmental.
How do you communicate assertively?
question care decisions openly and honestly, use "I statements", focus on the issue, not the participants, use effective nonverbal language, don't invite negative responses, use fogging to help you accept criticism without becoming anxious or defensive, use negative inquiry, strive for a workable compromise.
Use critical (CUS) language:
Concerned, uncomfortable, safety - "i'm concerned, I'm uncomfortable, this is unsafe or I'm scared"
Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation.
collaborative approach in which physicians and nurses gather at the patient's bedside to discuss goals for care and/or changes in the plan of care and to answer the questions of the patient, family and healthcare staff.
focuses on improving the health of the client, whether an individual or community.
A client-centered communication directed at achieving client goals
Therapeutic relationship consists of 4 phases:
Pre-interaction phase, orientation phase, working phase, and termination phase.
you begin establishing communication by gathering information about the client, but the nurse and client do not have direct communication
Goal is to establish rapport and trust through the use of verbal and nonverbal communication.
The nurse communicates caring, the patient expresses thoughts and feelings, mutual respect is maintained, and honest verbal and nonverbal expression occurs
reviewing and summarizing help to bring the relationship to a comfortable conclusion
5 key characteristics of therapeutic communication:
Empathy, respect, genuineness, concreteness and confrontation
the desire to understand and be sensitive to the feelings, beliefs, and situation of another person
valuing the client and being flexible to meet the client's needs
the ability to respond honestly
Concreteness and confrontation:
You must offer understandable responses to a client's questions and concerns; to do so requires you to express in concrete, specific terms that you mean
Group communication occurs when:
you interact with a family, a community or a committee.
Groups can enhance:
problem-solving, creativity, generate understanding and support, enhance morale, and provide affiliation
Task groups are formed to:
address a task or fulfill a need
address issues that are recurrent
are voluntary organizations composed of individuals with a common need
Therapy groups are:
organized to help individual members cope with challenging personal issues or stressful life events, such as divorce, death of a suppose or new motherhood
Work-related social support groups help:
members of a profession cope with the stress associated with their work
Active listening is:
when you're giving full attention and allows the sender the opportunity to complete comments without interruption
clarifying messages helps ensure that:
you have accurately interpreted the information
using your own words to summarize the message you received from the client.
To validate the message:
ask the client whether you are making a correct interpretation
two people converse while a third records the conversation