61 notecards = 16 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Even in the absence of sperm, metabolic activity in an egg can be
artificially activated by _____.
C) injection of calcium ions into the cytosol
2) The formation of the fertilization envelope requires an increase
in the availability of _____. A) calcium ions
D) sodium ions
3) Contact of a sea urchin egg with signal molecules on sperm causes
the egg to undergo a brief _____.
4) The plasma membrane of the sea urchin egg _____.
D) is a mesh of proteins crossing through the cytosol of the egg
5) Fertilization of an egg without activation is most like
B) resting during halftime of a basketball game
6) A reproductive difference between sea urchins and humans is
7) During fertilization, the acrosomal contents _____.
D) trigger the completion of meiosis by the sperm
8) In a newly fertilized egg, the vitelline layer _____.
B) secretes hormones that enhance steroidogenesis by the ovary
9) In sea urchins, the "fast block" and the longer lasting
"slow block" to polyspermy, respectively, are _____.
C) the jelly coat of the egg and the vitelline membrane
D) membrane depolarization and the cortical reaction
10) In an egg cell treated with a chemical that binds calcium and
magnesium ions, the _____. A) acrosomal reaction would be
D) fertilization envelope would not be formed
11) In mammalian eggs, the receptors for sperm are found in the _____.
A) fertilization membrane
D) mitochondria of the egg
12) A human blastomere is _____.
C) that part of the acrosome that opens the egg's membrane
D) a cell that contains a (degenerating) second polar body
13) At the moment of sperm penetration, human eggs _____.
B) are still located within the ovary
D) are still surrounded by follicular cells
14) In a developing frog embryo, most of the yolk is _____.
A) located near the animal pole
D) distributed equally throughout the embryo
15) Among these choices, the largest cell involved in frog reproduction is _____.
A) an egg
D) one of the products of the first cleavage
16) The pattern of embryonic development in which only the cells
lacking yolk subsequently undergo cleavage is called _____.
C) holoblastic development, which is typical of amphibians
D) meroblastic development, which is typical of birds
17) As cleavage continues during frog development, the size of the
blastomeres _____. A) increases as the number of the blastomeres
D) decreases as the number of the blastomeres decreases
18) The vegetal pole of a frog zygote differs from the animal pole in that _____.
A) the vegetal pole has a higher concentration of yolk
D) the polar bodies bud from this region
19) Meroblastic cleavage occurs in _____.
20) Which of the following correctly displays the sequence of developmental milestones?
A) blastula → gastrula → cleavage
D) gastrula → blastula → cleavage
21) The first cavity formed during frog development is the _____.
22) In some rare salamander species, all individuals are females. Reproduction relies on those females having access to sperm from males of another species. However, the resulting embryos receive no genetic contribution from the males. In this case, the sperm appear to be used only for _____.
23) The cortical reaction of sea urchin eggs functions directly in _____.
A) the formation of a fertilization envelope
D) the generation of an electrical impulse by the egg
24) The structure of the Drosophila gene, called Tinman, is similar
to a gene in humans that also _____.
C) determines structures in the eyes
25) From earliest to latest, the overall sequence of early
development proceeds in which of the following sequences?
B) cortical reaction → synthesis of embryo's DNA begins → acrosomal
reaction → first cell division
D) acrosomal reaction → cortical reaction → synthesis of embryo's DNA begins → first cell division
26) An embryo with meroblastic cleavage, extraembryonic membranes,
and a primitive streak must be that of _____.
C) a bird
27) Cells move to new positions as an embryo establishes its three
germ-tissue layers during _____.
28) The outer-to-inner sequence of tissue layers in a
post-gastrulation vertebrate embryo is _____.
C) ectoderm → mesoderm → endoderm
29) If gastrulation was blocked by an environmental toxin, then _____.
A) cleavage would not occur in the zygote
D) the blastopore would form above the gray crescent in the animal pole
30) The archenteron of the developing sea urchin eventually develops into the _____.
D) brain and spinal cord
31) In a frog embryo, gastrulation _____.
32) Which of the following is a correct description of the fate of the germ layers?
A) The mesoderm gives rise to the notochord.
D) The mesoderm gives rise to the lungs.
33) The primitive streak in a bird is the functional equivalent of _____.
A) the lip of the blastopore in the frog
D) neural crest cells in a mammal
34) In all vertebrate animals, development requires _____.
A) a large supply of yolk
D) a primitive streak
35) The least amount of yolk would be found in the egg of a _____.
36) At the time of implantation, the human embryo is called a _____.
37) Uterine implantation due to enzymatic digestion of the
endometrium is initiated by the _____.
38) Thalidomide, now banned for use as a sedative in pregnancy, was
used in the early 1960s by many women in their first trimester of
pregnancy. Some of these women gave birth to children with arm and leg
deformities, suggesting that the drug most likely influenced
B) differentiation of bone tissue
39) The migratory neural crest cells _____.
D) form the lining of the lungs and of the digestive tract
40) From earliest to latest, the overall sequence of early
development proceeds in which of the following sequences?
C) gastrulation → blastulation → neurulation
41) Changes in cell position occur extensively during _____.
A) organogenesis, but not during gastrulation or cleavage
42) Changes in the shape of a cell usually involve a reorganization of the _____.
D) transport proteins
43) When we compare animal development to plant development, we find that _____.
A) plant cells, but not animal cells, migrate during
D) neither plant cells nor animal cells migrate during morphogenesis
44) Select the choice that correctly associates the organ with its embryonic sources.
A) anterior pituitary gland — mesoderm and endoderm
D) skin — endoderm and mesoderm
45) The embryonic precursor to the human spinal cord is the _____.
46) During metamorphosis, a tadpoles tail is reduced in size by the process of _____.
47) The term applied to a morphogenetic process whereby cells extend
themselves, making the mass of the cells narrower and wider, is
C) elongational streaming
48) Which of the following is common to the development of birds and mammals?
A) the formation of an embryonic epiblast and hypoblast
D) the formation of an embryonic gray crescent
49) The archenteron of a frog develops into the _____.
D) lumen of the digestive tract
50) What structural adaptation in chickens allows them to lay their
eggs in arid environments rather than in water?
51) If an amphibian zygote is manipulated so that the first cleavage
plane fails to divide the gray crescent, then _____.
C) only the daughter cell with the gray crescent will develop normally
D) both daughter cells will develop abnormally
52) Hans Spemann and colleagues developed the concept of the
organizer in amphibian embryos while studying the _____.
C) lateral margins of the neural tube
53) Which of the following is an adult organism that has fewer than 1,000 cells?
A) chickens, Gallus domesticus
D) nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans
54) The developmental precursors to the gonadal tissues of
Caenorhabditis elegans uniquely contain _____.
C) T tubules for the propagation of action potentials
D) P granules of mRNA and protein
55) Two primary factors in shaping the polarity of the body axes in chick embryos are _____.
A) light and temperature
D) moisture and mucus
56) The arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic
places in 3-D space defines _____.
57) If the apical ectodermal ridge is surgically removed from an embryo, it will lose _____.
A) positional information for limb-bud pattern formation
D) the developmental substrate for the kidneys
58) The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans _____.
59) In humans, identical twins are possible because _____.
B) extraembryonic cells interact with the zygote nucleus
60) Cells transplanted from the neural tube of a frog embryo to the
ventral part of another embryo develop into nervous system tissues.
This result indicates that the transplanted cells were _____.
61) Embryonic induction, the influence of one group of cells on
another group of cells, plays a critical role in embryonic
development. In 1924, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold transplanted a
piece of tissue that influences the formation of the notochord and
neural tube, from the dorsal lip of an amphibian embryo to the ventral
side of another amphibian embryo. If embryonic induction occurred,
which of the following observations justifies the claim of embryonic