61 notecards = 16 pages (4 cards per page)
1) The smallest cell structure that would most likely be visible with
a standard (not super- resolution) research-grade light microscope is
2) The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
B) light microscopy provides for higher resolving power than
electron microscopy C) light microscopy allows one to view dynamic
processes in living cells
3) In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation,
the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular
component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is the _____.
4) What is the reason that a modern transmission electron microscope
(TEM) can resolve biological images to the subnanometer level, as
opposed to tens of nanometers achievable for the best super-resolution
5) What technique would be most appropriate to use to observe the
movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division?
C) transmission electron microscopy
6) A newspaper ad for a local toy store indicates that an inexpensive
toy microscope available for a small child is able to magnify
specimens nearly as much as the more costly microscope available in
your college lab. What is the primary reason for the price
B) The toy microscope magnifies a good deal, but has low resolution
and therefore poor quality images.
7) All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT _____.
A) a cell wall
D) an endoplasmic reticulum
8) Cell size is limited by _____.
B) the surface area of mitochondria in the cytoplasm
C) surface to volume ratios
9) Which of the following is a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
A) Prokaryotes have cells while eukaryotes do not.
D) Prokaryotes are generally larger than eukaryotes.
10) You have a cube of modeling clay in your hands. Which of the
following changes to the shape of this cube of clay will decrease its
surface area relative to its volume?
C) Round the clay up into a sphere.
11) Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
A) Bacteria and Eukarya
D) Bacteria and Protista
12) Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
13) Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
14) In a bacterium, we will find DNA in _____.
A) a membrane-enclosed nucleus
15) Which organelle or structure is absent in plant cells?
16) What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in
17) Which of the following macromolecules leaves the nucleus of a
eukaryotic cell through pores in the nuclear membrane?
18) Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect
of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?
C) Proteins secreted by prokaryotes are synthesized on ribosomes bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.
D) Prokaryotes cannot secrete proteins because they lack ribosomes.
19) Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize
in producing which of the following molecules?
20) The nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of
the nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the
lamina to fall into disarray, what would you most likely expect to be
the immediate consequence?
B) the inability of the nucleus to divide during cell division
C) a change in the shape of the nucleus
21) A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely _____.
A) primarily producing proteins for secretion
D) enlarging its vacuole
22) Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
23) A cell with an extensive area of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to _____.
A) play a role in storage
D) import and export protein molecules
24) Which structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system?
A) nuclear envelope
D) plasma membrane
25) The Golgi apparatus has a polarity, or sidedness, to its
structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly
describes this polarity?
C) Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as
they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
26) The difference in lipid and protein composition between the
membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by the
27) Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
A) rough ER
D) free cytoplasmic ribosomes
28) Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in
cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex,
undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this
B) the Golgi apparatus
C) the lysosome
29) The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and
drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this
process and, therefore, abundant in liver cells?
C) Golgi apparatus
30) Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
31) What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized
protein that will be secreted by a cell?
C) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
32) Asbestos is a material that was once used extensively in construction. One risk from working in a building that contains asbestos is the development of asbestosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Cells will phagocytize asbestos, but are not able to degrade it. As a result, asbestos fibers accumulate in _____.
33) Which of the following is NOT true? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria _____.
A) have their own DNA
D) are capable of reproducing themselves
34) Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?
35) Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in _____.
36) In a plant cell, DNA may be found _____.
37) In a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the
enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and
C) transfer the hydrogen to the mitochondria
38) The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
39) Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the
cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?
C) in mitochondria
40) Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures:
enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could
be a cell from _____.
C) nearly any eukaryotic organism
41) Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing
ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be
found within the _____.
42) Suppose a young boy is always tired and fatigued, suffering from
a metabolic disease. Which of the following organelles is most likely
involved in this disease?
43) Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by
interacting with what types of cellular structures?
C) components of the cytoskeleton
44) Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of
microtubules, consisting of nine doublets of microtubules surrounding
a pair of single microtubules?
C) basal bodies and primary (nonmotile) cilia
45) Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is
used to treat some forms of cancer. Cancer cells given vinblastine
would be unable to _____.
C) separate chromosomes during cell division D) maintain the shape of the nucleus
46) Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which
C) reinforcing the pseudopod with intermediate filaments
47) Researchers tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in
cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up
microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and
they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process
requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no
movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?
48) Cilia and flagella bend because of _____.
B) a motor protein called radial spokes
49) Spherocytosis is a human blood disorder associated with a
defective cytoskeletal protein in the red blood cells (RBCs). What do
you suspect is the consequence of such a defect?
C) an insufficient supply of oxygen-transporting proteins in the RBCs
D) adherence of RBCs to blood vessel walls, causing plaque formation
50) Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A
cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to _____.
C) extend pseudopodia
51) Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?
D) intermediate filaments
52) Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is
53) The cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plant cells and the
extracellular matrix of animal cells are all external to the plasma
membrane. Which of the following is a characteristic common to all of
these extracellular structures?
B) They must provide a rigid structure that maintains an appropriate
ratio of cell surface area to volume.
D) They are composed of a mixture of lipids and nucleotides.
54) A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add
polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause
defects in its _____.
C) Golgi apparatus and extracellular matrix
D) nuclear pores and secretory vesicles
55) The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?
A) gap junctions
C) DNA and RNA
56) Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to
which of the following structures in animal cells?
C) extracellular matrix
57) Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to
the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through _____.
58) In plant cells, the middle lamella _____.
59) Where would you expect to find tight junctions?
C) between plant cells in a woody plant
60) H. V. Wilson worked with sponges to gain some insight into
exactly what was responsible for holding adjacent cells together. He
exposed two species of differently pigmented sponges to a chemical
that disrupted the cell-cell interaction (cell junctions), and the
cells of the sponges dissociated. Wilson then mixed the cells of the
two species and removed the chemical that caused the cells to
dissociate. Wilson found that the sponges reassembled into two
separate species. The cells from one species did not interact or form
associations with the cells of the other species. How do you explain
the results of Wilson's experiments?
B) The molecules responsible for cell-cell adhesion (cell junctions)
were irreversibly destroyed during the experiment.
61) Gaucher disease is the most common of lipid storage diseases in humans. It is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme necessary for lipid metabolism. This leads to a collection of fatty material in organs of the body including the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bone marrow.
Using your knowledge of the structure of eukaryotic cells, identify
the statement below that best explains how internal membranes and the
organelles of cells would be involved in Gaucher disease.
B) The rough endoplasmic reticulum contains too many ribosomes which
results in an overproduction of the enzyme involved in carbohydrate
D) The Golgi apparatus produces vesicles with faulty membranes that leak their contents into the cytoplasm of the cell.