72 notecards = 18 pages (4 cards per page)
What are the six main functions of the skeletal system
Support, Protection, Assistance in movement, Mineral homeostasis (storage and release, Blood cell production, Triglyceride storage.
What is the
What are the proximal and distal ends of the bone
What are the regions between the diaphysis and the epiphyses
What is a layer of hyaline cartilage
When a bone ceases to grow in
What is a thin layer of hyaline cartilage
Function of Articular cartilage?
What is the periosteum composed of?
outer fibrous layer, inner osteogenic layer
What is a hollow, cylindrical space within the
medullary cavity or marrow cavity
What is a thin
calcification is initiated by bone-building cells called
a bone’s hardness depends on the?
a bone’s flexibility depends on its?
Like reinforcing metal rods in concrete, collagen
Osteogenic cells are
undergo cell division
Osteogenic cells are found along the
periosteum, endosteum, and the
Osteoblasts synthesize and secrete collagen fibers
build the extracellular
What are mature bone
What are huge cells
Osteoclasts are concentrated where?
powerful lysosomal enzymes and acids that
breakdown of bone extracellular matrix is called?
resorption is part of the
in response to certain
What type of bone tissue contains few spaces and is
Compact bone tissue
Compact bone tissue is found where?
beneath the periosteum
Compact bone tissue provides
protection and support and
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves from the
Volkmann’s (FOLK-mans) canals.
The components of compact bone tissue are arranged into
osteons or haversian systems
what kind of bone tissue does not
spongy bone tissue
Spongy bone consists of lamellae
The macroscopic spaces between the trabeculae help make
bones lighter and sometimes be filled with red bone marrow
Spongy bone tissue makes up most of the
interior bone tissue
What is accompanied by nerves
What artery enters the metaphyses of a long bone and, together with the nutrient
What artery enters the
The process by which bone forms is called
The replacement of cartilage by bone is called
growth from within is called
The cartilage model also
The epiphyseal (growth) plate (ep-i-FIZ-e--al) is a
hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of a growing bone
growing bones consists of what four zones?
Zone of resting cartilage, Zone of proliferating cartilage, Zone of hypertrophic cartilage, Zone of calcified cartilage
layer is nearest the epiphysis
Zone of resting cartilage
Slightly larger chondrocytes
Zone of proliferating cartilage
Zone of proliferating cartilage undergoes what?
interstitial growth as they divide and secrete
Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
The final zone of the epiphyseal
Zone of calcified cartilage.
the blood plasma level of Ca2 is very
9 and 11 mg/100 mL.
Ca2+ exchange is regulated by hormones, the most important
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)increases blood ______ level
PTH also acts on the kidneys (effectors) to decrease loss of
Ca2+ in the urine
calcitonin inhibits activity of what?
osteoclasts, speeds blood Ca2 uptake by bone, and accelerates
osteoblast activity and
what hormone promote changes in the skeleton that are typical of females, such
Ultimately sex hormones, especially
shut down growth at epiphyseal
During adulthood, sex hormones contribute to what?
the hormones most important
liver and bone tissue
insulinlike growth factors (IGFs) promote what?
osteoblasts, promote cell division at the epiphyseal
IGFs are produced in response
human growth hormone (hGH)
human growth hormone (hGH) is secreted from what?
What hormone that aids in the absorption of calcium
calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D)
What hormone that promotes absorption of calcium from foods in