Our body defense system can be:
Will defend the same no matter what they are, or where they are.
There are some types of Non-Specific
- Physical Barrier
- Phagocyte cells
- Immunological surveillance
- Skin (epithelium with its multiple layers of keratinized cells
and desmosomes intercellular connections.
- Cilia - Hairs
prevent insects from having easy access to the surface of the
- Secreations (from sebaceous and sudoriferous glands not
only flush the surface to keep it washed clean of microbes but they
also contain antibodies, enzymes (lysozyme) and bactericidal
- Epithelia of the digestive, respiratory, urinary
and reproductive tract are delicate.
- Mucus bathes the
srufaces of the distrive tract ad the stomach has very low pH which
will kill bacteria. Alos moves over the lining of the respiratory
tract, urine flushes out the urinary tract and glandular secretions
clean the reproductive tract.
- Engulf microorganisms and damaged cells.
and eosinophils leave the bloodstream and enter into the peripheral
- Neutrophils are abundant, mobile and phagocyte
- Eosinophils target foreign compounds or pathogens which have
been coated with antibodies.
- Mostly are Monocytes
- Macrophage phagocytoses foreign
objects or secrete lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide or several other
factors into the interstitial fluid to destroy the foreign
- There are 2 types of macrophages:
- Free Macrophages
- Known as : Microglia and Kupffer cells or stellate
- Are stationary in their tissue
and do not leave them (lung, liver, brain, spleen, lypmph nodes, and
- Travel through the body
- They are derived from
monocytes of the blood.
The movement of macrophages and microphages through the capillary
walls and into the surrounding tissues.
The attraction or repelling of macrophages by chemicals in the
surrounding fluids is
The initial binding that occurs between the macrophage and the target
just prior to phagocytosis
- It is the constant monitoring of the tissue by NK cells.
- NK Cells will phagocytose any cell which contains abnormal
antigens which are not native to your system.
- Small protein which are released by activated lymphocytes and
macrophages and by tissues infected with viruses.
- IT DO NOT
prevent viruses from entering a cell, BUT they do interfere with the
viruses ability to replicate.
- They also attract NK
- Increase phagocytic activity and
inflammation in a damaged area to slow the spread of a viral