52 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
2) Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell
divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?
For a newly evolving protist, what would be the advantage of using
eukaryote-like cell division rather than binary fission?
B) Cell division would allow for the orderly and efficient segregation of multiple linear chromosomes.
Suppose a biologist can separate one of a dozen pieces of chromatin
from a eukaryotic (animal) nucleus. It might consist of which of the
D) two long strands of DNA plus proteins
6) At which phase are centrioles beginning to move apart in animal
7) If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a
drug that interferes with the formation of the spindle
apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?
formation of the spindle apparatus
If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many
chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in
both plant and animal cells?
Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the Pacific yew tree. In
animal cells, Taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to
microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein
precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically,
Taxol must affect
A) the formation of the mitotic spindle.
Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in
plant cells but not in animal cells?
B) Golgi-derived vesicles
In which group of eukaryotic organisms does the nuclear envelope
remain intact during mitosis?
D) dinoflagellates and diatoms only
A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following
mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per
nucleus. How many picograms would be found at the end of S and the end
D) 16; 16
For anaphase to begin, which of the following must occur?
C) Cohesin must be cleaved enzymatically.
Which of the following best describes how chromosomes move toward the
poles of the spindle during mitosis?
D) The chromosomes are "reeled in" by the contraction of spindle microtubules, and motor proteins of the kinetochores move the chromosomes along the spindle microtubules.
Which of the following is a function of those spindle microtubules
that do not attach to kinetochores?
D) maintaining the region of overlap of microtubules in the cell's center
During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?
The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?
A) every human cell
A) every human cell
In the human species, all somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. Which of the following can also be true?
A) A plant species (privet shrubs) has 46 chromosomes per cell.
A) A plant species (privet shrubs) has 46 chromosomes per cell.
Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual
B) In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring.
At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the
preparation of a karyotype?
Which of the following defines a genome?
E) the complete set of an organism's genes
Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome
number of 2n = 16?
C) Each cell has eight homologous pairs.
Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the
following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?
C) II, III, and IV
Which of these statements is false?
D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.
Referring to a plant's sexual life cycle, which of the following
terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of
B) gametophyte mitosis
Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?
B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).
The karyotype of one species of primate has 48 chromosomes. In a
particular female, cell division goes awry and she produces one of her
eggs with an extra chromosome (25). The most probable source of this
error would be a mistake in which of the following?
E) either anaphase 1 and 2
A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can
therefore conclude which of the following?
E) Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes.
A triploid cell contains three sets of chromosomes. If a cell of a
usually diploid species with 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this
cell would be expected to have which of the following?
B) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3
A karyotype results from which of the following?
C) the ordering of human chromosome images
Which of the following best describes a karyotype?
B) a display of each of the chromosomes of a single cell
If a cell has completed the first meiotic division and is just
beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate
description of its contents?
A) It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.
Which of the following can utilize both mitosis and meiosis in the
D) a plantlike protist
Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45
A) an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase
Which of the following was a discovery that had to be made before
human chromosomes could be correctly counted?
A) how to use a hypotonic solution to swell nuclei
Which of the following is (are) required for motor proteins to
function in the movement of chromosomes toward the poles of the
D) ATP as an energy source
Which of the following proteins are involved in binary fission as
well as eukaryotic mitotic division?
D) actin and tubulin
Using which of the following techniques would enable your lab group
to distinguish between a cell in G₂ and a cell from the same organism
D) radioactive-labeled nucleotides
You have the technology necessary to measure each of the following in
a sample of animal cells: chlorophylls, organelle density, picograms
of DNA, cell wall components, and enzymatic activity. Which would you
expect to increase significantly from M to G₁?
A) organelle density and enzymatic activity
A plant-derived protein known as colchicine can be used to poison
cells by blocking the formation of the spindle. Which of the following
would result if colchicine is added to a sample of cells in G₂?
C) The chromosomes would coil and shorten but have no spindle to which to attach.
What causes the decrease in the amount of cyclin at a specific point
in the cell cycle?
D) its destruction by a process initiated by the activity of its complex with a cyclin
Which of the following is released by platelets in the vicinity of an
Тромбоцитарный фактор роста
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the numerous growth factors or proteins that regulate cell growth and division. In particular, it plays a significant role in blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), the growth of blood vessels from already-existing blood vessel tissue
Which of the following is a protein synthesized at specific times
during the cell cycle that associates with a kinase to form a
catalytically active complex?
Proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and
that show fluctuations in concentration during the cell cycle, are
A mutation results in a cell that no longer produces a normal protein
kinase for the M phase checkpoint. Which of the following would likely
be the immediate result of this mutation?
E) The cell would undergo normal mitosis, but fail to enter the next G₁ phase.
Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?
E) When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle; they are not subject to cell cycle controls; and they do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture
Besides the ability of some cancer cells to overproliferate, what
else could logically result in a tumor?
C) lack of appropriate cell death
After which checkpoint is the cell first committed to continue the
cell cycle through M?
Why do neurons and some other specialized cells divide infrequently?
A) They no longer have active nuclei.
C) They have been shunted into G₀.
All cell cycle checkpoints are similar in which way?
A) They respond to the same cyclins.
E) They activate or inactivate other proteins
At the M phase checkpoint, the complex allows for what to occur?
A) Separase enzyme cleaves cohesins and allows chromatids to
A) Separase enzyme cleaves cohesins and allows chromatids to separate.
For the following question, match the key event of meiosis with the
stages listed below.
Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle;
alignment determines independent assortment.
Which of the following best describes the frequency of crossing over
C) at least 1-2 per chromosome pair