95 notecards = 24 pages (4 cards per page)
The life sustaining transport vehicle of the cardio vascular system
Blood functions include:
Transport, Regulation, Protection
Fluid connective tissue
Non Living Fluid Matrix
Living Blood Cells suspended in plasma
red blood cells - RBC's
White Blood Cells (WBC's)
Layers of blood composition
Plasma on top, Erythrocytes on bottom,WBC and platelets in BUFFY COAT
Main function for blood -
1. transport function on blood
delivering oxygen and nutrients to bodys cells
2 - transport function on blood....
transport metabolic wastes to lungs and kidneys for elimination
3. transport function of blood -
transport hormones from endocrine organs to target organs
Percentage of plasma on top layer (least dense)
Percentage of Erythrocytes on bottom layer
~45% of whole blood
Percentage of WBC's and platelete in buffy coat
Percent of blood volume that is RBC's
Percent of blood volume in males/females
-47% +- 5%/42% +- 5%
Most dense component of blood
Physical Characteristics and volume of blood
Sticky, opaque fluid with metallic taste
Color of blood varies by ___________
amount of O2 content
High O2 blood color
Low O2 blood color
PH of blood
Percent of body weight of blood
Average volume of blood
5-6 L for males/4-5 L for females
Functions of blood include -
distributing substances, regulating blood levels of substances, and protection
Additional regulation functions of blood
Maintain body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat, maintaining normal PH using buffers, alkaline reserve of bicarbonate ions, maintain adequate fluid volume in circulatory system
Which of the following is a function of the blood?
defense against toxins and pathogens/transport nutrients and waste/transport body heat/transport gases
The process of lymphopoiesis goes in all of the following organs except
(does go to lymphnodes,red bone marrow, thymus, spleen)
A typical adult hematocrit is _______
Platelets are pinched off from giant multi nucleated cells in the bone marrow called
Which plasma protein transports fatty acids and some hormones?
After donating 0.5 liters of blood, one would expect
an increased reticulocyte count
Blood returning to the heart from systematic circuit first enters the ________
What is the correct order for the flow of blood enters from the systemic circulation?
venae cavae, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta
Which of the following would increase heart rate?
faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential, decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers, increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node, Increased levels of epinephrine
Coronary veins empty into the ________?
Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the ekg's
If the connection between the vagus nerve and the heart is cut, which of the changes will occur
none of these - cardiac output will decrease, stroke volume will decrease, heart will beat slower, nodal fibers will depolarize more slowly
PTH - Parathyroid Hormone
controls calcium and phosphorus levels in blood/made by parathyroid glands/if blood calcium levels is too low the parathyroid gland releases more PTH - causes bones to release more calcium
produced in parafollicular cells (c cells) of thyroid gland. Involved in helping to regulate levels of calcium and phosphate in blood, opposing active of PTH hormone. reduces the concentration of blood calcium levels when it has risen above normal level.
How protection occurs in blood ___________
Plasma proteins and platelets in blood initiate clot formation
How does blood assist in preventing infection?
Agents of immunity are carried in blood (antibodies, complement proteins, white blood cells.
platelets - help form clot when damaged tube to blood vessel
Formed elements are located?
They are suspended in plasma, and include erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
Percent of blood volume that is RBC's
This, whitish layer between RBC's and plama layers
How to prevent blood loss?
Plasma proteins and platelets initiate clot formation
If calcium goes to high, what hormone is released? and from where?
Calcitonin - from thyroid gland
What does calcitonin do?
Blood plasma contains _______ percent water
Most abundant solutes are ___________.
Plasma proteins are produced mostly in ____________
Plasma proteins has _______% albumin, _______% globulins, ___________% fibrinogen
Functions of Albumin are _____________.
substance carrier, blood buffer, major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure.
major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure is ______________
What helps clotting by producing fibers?
ONLY _____________ are complete cells of formed elements.
White blood cells
______________ have no nuclei or other organelles.
Red blood cells.
Cell fragments for clotting are ___________ .
Most formed elements survive in blood stream for ____________.
Only a few days
Table: 17.1 - What is the description of water and it's importance?
90% of plasma volume, dissolving and suspending medium for solutes of blood, absorb heat
Description and Importance of (the Solute) Electrolytes?
Most abundant Solutes by number. Cations include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, anions include chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate. they help to maintain plasma osmotic pressure and normal blood ph
Description and Importance of Plasma Proteins?
8% by weight of plasma, all contribute to osmotic pressure and maintain water balance in blood and tissues. All have other functions (transport, enzymatic, etc.)
Description and importance of Albumin?
60% of plasma proteins, produced by liver, main contributor to osmotic pressure.
Description and Importance of Globulins?
36% Plasma proteins
Description and Importance of Alpha/beta
Produced by liver, mist are transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat soluble vitamins.
Description and importance of Gamma?
Antibodies release by plasma cells during immune response.
Description and importance of Fibrinogen?
4% of plasma proteins, produced by liver, forms fibrin threads of blood clot.
Description and Importance of non protein nitrogenous substances?
By-products of cellular metabolism such as urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonium salts.
Description and importance of (organic) Nutrients?
Materials absorbed from digestive tract and transported for use throughout the body. Include glucose and other simple carbohydrates, amino acids (protein digestive products) fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides (fat digestion products) cholesterol and vitamins.
Description and Importance of respiratory Gases?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide, oxygen mostly bound to the hemoglobin inside RBC's, carbon dioxide transported dissolved as biocarbonate ion or CO2, or bound to hemoglobin in RBCs.
Description and importance of Hormones?
Steroid and Thyroid hormones carried by plasma proteins.
What protein contains 60% of plasma protein?
Functions of Albumin?
Substance carrier, blood buffer, major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure.
Most Blood cells originate in ____________ and do not divide?
Bioconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles are _____________
Have diameter larger than some capillaries
Erythrocytes are filled with _________________ for gas transport.
________ contain plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins.
Spectrin provides ______________ and _____________.
Flexibility and changes shape
Vicsosity means ____________
_____________ is the major factor contributing to blood viscosity.
Each of the follow is a characteristic of whole blood except:
viscosity about the wsame as water.
Characteristics of whole blood - color, ph, temp.
deep red color from hemoglobin, ph 0f 7.4, built in system for clotting, temperature of aprox.
38 degrees C,
A Plasma protein essenrial for blood coagulation is ______________
more than 95 percent of the protein in a red blood cell is ____________________
A typical adult hematocrit is
White blood cells that release histamine at the site of an injury are
Most of the protein factors that are required for clotting are synthesized by
plasma is closest in composition to
the most abundant while blood cells are _________________-
each heme rund in heloglobin encloses an atom of
hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if
an rh-negative mother carries an rh-positive fetus
the pus associated with infected wounds contain
tissue fluids, cellular debris, dead neutrophils