49 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Which of the following is (are) true of natural selection?
A) It requires genetic variation, results in descent with
modification, and involves differential reproductive success.
2) Cotton-topped tamarins are small primates with tufts of long white hair on their heads. While studying these creatures, you notice that males with longer hair get more opportunities to mate and father more offspring. To test the hypothesis that having longer hair is adaptive in these males, you should _____.
A) test whether other traits in these males are also
3) A salamander relies on hydrogen bonding to stick to various surfaces. Therefore, a salamander would have the greatest difficulty clinging to a _____.
A) surface of mostly carbon-oxygen bonds
B) surface of mostly carbon-nitrogen bonds
C) surface of hydrocarbons
D) slightly damp surface
Use the following information when answering the corresponding
A) The experiment was inconclusive because Redi used only one
kind of meat.
5) Agrobacterium infects plants and causes them to form tumors. You
are asked to determine how long a plant must be exposed to these
bacteria to become infected. Which of the following experiments will
provide the best data to address that question?
6) Water molecules can form hydrogen bonds with _____.
A) oxygen gas (O2) molecules
B) chloride ions
D) compounds that have polar covalent bonds
7) You have a freshly prepared 0.1 M glucose solution. Each liter of this solution contains how many glucose molecules?
A) 6.02 × 1024
B) 6.02 × 1022
C) 6.02 × 1023
D) 3.01 × 1023
8) The cities of Portland, Oregon, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, are at about the same latitude, but Minneapolis has much hotter summers and much colder winters than Portland. Why?
A) The ocean near Portland moderates the temperature.
9) Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the
solute molecule depicted here is most likely _____.
B) without charge
C) positively charged
D) negatively charged
10) Identical heat lamps are arranged to shine on two identical containers, one containing water and one methanol (wood alcohol), so that each liquid absorbs the same amount of energy minute by minute. The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. Which of the following graphs correctly describes what will happen to the temperature of the water and the methanol?
11) A solution with a pH of 5 has how many more protons in it than a
solution with a pH of 7?
12) A solution contains 0.0000001 (10-7) moles of hydroxyl ions [OH-] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
A) basic: H+ acceptor
B) acidic: H+ donor
C) acidic: H+ acceptor
13) Which of the following molecules is polar?
A) Neither C2H5COOH or C3H7OH is polar.
14) A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Therefore, this compound ___.
A) lacks an asymmetric carbon and is probably a fat or
15) Which functional group shown above is characteristic of alcohols?
A) A B) B C) C D) D
16) Which functional group(s) shown above is (are) present in all amino acids?
A) A and B B) B and D
C) C only D) B and C
17) Which of the groups shown above is a functional group that helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?
A) A B) B C) C D) D
18) How do phospholipids interact with water molecules?
A) The polar heads interact with water; the nonpolar tails do
19) A glycosidic linkage is analogous to which of the following in proteins?
A) a β-pleated sheet B) a disulfide bond C) a peptide bond D) an amino group
20) Which of the following is the strongest evidence that protein structure and function are correlated?
A) Proteins have four distinct levels of structure and many
21) Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large, complex, undigested lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
A) the lysosome B) the Golgi apparatus C) mitochondrion D) the endoplasmic reticulum
22) The R-group, or side chain, of the amino acid serine is -CH2-OH. The R-group, or side chain, of the amino acid leucine is -CH2-CH-(CH3)2. Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution?
A) Serine and leucine would both be in the interior of the
23) Changing a single amino acid in a protein consisting of 325 amino acids would _____.
A) alter the primary structure of the protein but not its
tertiary structure or function
24) If a DNA sample were composed of 10% thymine, what would be the percentage of guanine?
A) 10 B) 80 C) 40 D) It is impossible to tell from the information given.
25) A new organism is discovered in the forests of Costa Rica. Scientists there determine that the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 72 amino acid differences from humans, 65 differences from a gibbon, 49 differences from a rat, and 5 differences from a frog. These data suggest that the new organism is more closely related to
A) rats than to frogs B) gibbons than to rats
26) What is the reason that a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) can resolve biological images to the subnanometer level, as opposed to tens of nanometers achievable for the best super-resolution light microscope?
A) The electron microscope has a much greater ratio of image size to
27) What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
A) ER → Golgi → nucleus
28) How many grams of the compound in the figure above are required to make 1 liter of a 0.5 M solution? (Note: The atomic masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 for carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.)
A) 30 B) 29 C) 60 D) 150
30) Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures:
enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could
be a cell from _____.
31) Which molecule has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and is found in plasma membranes?
A) 14 B) 5 C) 12 D) 1
32) Which of the following combinations of molecules illustrated could be linked to form a nucleotide?
A) 11, 12, and 13
B) 1, 2, and 11
C) 5, 9, and 10
D) 3, 7, and 8
33) Which molecule is a saturated fatty acid?
34) Which of the following molecules is a purine nitrogenous base?
35) Which of the following molecules act as building blocks (monomers) of polypeptides?
A) 7, 8, and 13
B) 2, 7, and 8
C) 11, 12, and 13
D) 1, 4, and 6
36) Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
A) nucleic acids
37) What is the function of the nuclear pore complex found in eukaryotes?
A) It assembles ribosomes from raw materials that are synthesized
in the nucleus.
38) Asbestos is a material that was once used extensively in construction. One risk from working in a building that contains asbestos is the development of asbestosis caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. Cells will phagocytize asbestos, but are not able to degrade it. As a result, asbestos fibers accumulate in _____.
A) peroxisomes B) lysosomes C) mitochondria D) ribosomes
39) Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?
A) Golgi apparatus B) mitochondrion C) lysosome D) peroxisome
40) In a plant cell, DNA may be found _____.
A) in the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and
41) The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved _____.
A) acquisition of an endomembrane system and subsequent evolution
of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi
42) Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?
A) in the nucleolus
B) in the extracellular matrix
C) in the Golgi apparatus
D) in mitochondria
43) Researchers tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?
A) endoplasmic reticulum
B) motor proteins
C) an axon
D) contractile microfilaments
44) Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?
A) Chemicals that block the assembly of the cytoskeleton would
have little effect on a cell's response to external stimuli.
45) Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?
A) extracellular matrix
B) gap junctions
C) tight junctions
46) Where would you expect to find tight junctions?
A) in the epithelium of an animal's stomach
47) H. V. Wilson worked with sponges to gain some insight into exactly what was responsible for holding adjacent cells together. He exposed two species of differently pigmented sponges to a chemical that disrupted the cell-cell interaction (cell junctions), and the cells of the sponges dissociated. Wilson then mixed the cells of the two species and removed the chemical that caused the cells to dissociate. Wilson found that the sponges reassembled into two separate species. The cells from one species did not interact or form associations with the cells of the other species. How do you explain the results of Wilson's experiments?
A) The two species of sponge had different enzymes that
functioned in the reassembly process.
48) Gaucher disease is the most common of lipid storage diseases in humans. It is caused by a deficiency of an enzyme necessary for lipid metabolism. This leads to a collection of fatty material in organs of the body including the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, and bone marrow. Using your knowledge of the structure of eukaryotic cells, identify the statement below that best explains how internal membranes and the organelles of cells would be involved in Gaucher disease.
A) The lysosomes lack sufficient amounts of enzymes necessary for
the metabolism of lipids.
49) Both the volume and the surface area for three different cells were measured. These values are listed in the following table:
Using data from the table above, select the best explanation for why that cell will be able to eliminate waste most efficiently?
A) Cell 3 because it is big enough to allow wastes to easily
diffuse through the plasma membrane.
50) Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
A) Dehydration reactions assemble polymers; hydrolysis reactions
break polymers apart.