69 notecards = 18 pages (4 cards per page)
relaxed quiet breathing; tidal volume of 500 mL, respiratory rate of 12-15 breathes/minute
temporary cessation of breathing
labored, gasping breathing; shortness of breath
increased rate and depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain, or other conditions.
increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand, leads to decrease in blood CO2.
reduced pulmonary ventilation leading to an increase in blood CO2.
deep, rapid breathing induced by acidosis.
dyspnea that occurs when person is lying down.
permanent cessation of breathing
"At the air-water interface, for a given temperature, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in air, thus O2 and CO2 diffuse down their own gradient until partial pressure of each gas in air equals its partial pressure in water."
at low oxyhemoglobin levels, the body transports more CO2
The Haldane effect
the body releases more O2 in response to low pH.
The Bohr Effects
PCO2 < 37 mm Hg (CO2 deficiency), most common cause of alkalosis
PCO2 > 43 mm HG (excess CO2), most common cause of acidosis
PO2 >60 mm Hg, which will cause an increase in ventilation
With an increased ventilation from Chronic Hypoxemia, this can lead to... respiration driven more by low PO2 than CO2 or pH, occurs with emphysema, pneumonia, and being in high altitudes for several days.
O2 deficiency in tissue, or inability to use O2- usually a consequence of a respiratory disease. Causes Cyanosis (blueness of skin)
low arterial PO2 usually due to inadequate pulmonary gas exchange.
inadequate circulation of blood- congestive heart failure
anemia> decreased blood O2 carrying capacity
metabolic poisons; e.g., cyanide prevent tissues from using O2.
safe to breathe 100% pure O2 at 1 atm for a few hours, but... breathed at 2.5 atm or greater generates free radicals & H2O2 that accumulates in cells, which overwhelm antioxidant defense mechanisms (Oxidative Stress). Damages intracellular structures and molecules> then damages nervous tissue> causing seizures, coma, or death.
obstruction of airflow and reduced pulmonary ventilation. Major types: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Almost always associated with smoking, but also air pollution, and occupational exposure to airborne irritants.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
severe, persistent inflammation of lower respiratory tract; severe chronic congestion. Blood flowing through congestion lung areas is poorly oxygenated> decreases ventilation-perfusion ratio> causes hypoxemia and cyanosis.
alveolar wall breaks down, fewer BIG alveoli> severely reduced surface area available for gas exchange; lungs also fibrotic, less elastic- OK inspiration but lungs tend to collapse with exhalation.
protein present in urine
blood present in urine
excess urination of more than 2 L/day.
too little urination; less than 500 mL/day
severely too little urination; between 0-100 mL/day (due to: kidney disease, dehydration, circulatory shock, or enlarged prostate)
urine output <400 mL/day, body cannot maintain safe/low concentrations of waste in plasma, which leads to....
too much water remains in urine... (usually happens with diabetes)
glucose in urine
_____ hypersecretion will lead to impaired water absorption in the collecting duct.
any chemical that increases urine volume. (some increase GFR)
________ dilates afferent arteriole and alters effect of ADH.
______ inhibits ADH secretion.
__________ act on the nephron loop- inhibit Na, K, and Cl symport; impair counter current multiplier reducing medullary osmotic gradient, causing the collecting duct to not absorb as much water.
volume of blood plasma from which a particular waste is completely removed in one minute.
Clinical GFR is estimated from ________ excretion.
water from aerobic metabolism and dehydration synthesis.
water from food and drink.
unavoidable expired air, cutaneous transpiration, sweat, and fecal moisture
Insensible water loss
plasma volume depletion
negative water balance
positive water balance, water intoxication
blood sodium is too low, causing cellular swelling
excess fluid builds up in a particular location.
abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces, causing swelling of tissues.
_________ can cause fluid sequestration; blood will pool in tissues, less blood in vessles.
liters of fluid accumulated in pleural cavity, caused by some lung infections.
Potassium levels >5mEq/L. Inactivates voltage-regulated Sodium channels, nerve and muscle cells become less excitable.
Plasma Sodium concentration >145 mEq/L. (causes edema, water retention, and hypertension)
Plasma sodium concentration <130 mEq/L. (person loses large volumes of sweat and urine, but replace it with plain water, results in excess body water, quickly corrected by excretion of excess water).
Potassium levels <3.5mEq/L. (causes: excessive sweating, loss of K from GI tract, e.g. chronic vomiting, diarrhea, excessive laxative use; ALDO hypersecretion).
Dietary excess of chloride or administration of IV line.
side effect of hyponatremia (low blood sodium), but sometime of hyperkalemia or acidosis.
_______ hypertension: 90% of cases; due to obesity, sedentary behavior, diet, and nicotine.
_______ hypertension: 10% of cases; secondary to other diseases= kidney disease, atherosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, and Cushing's.
any mechanism that resists changes in pH. Converts strong acids or bases to weak acids or bases.
a whole system that controls output of acids, bases, or CO2. (ex.: Urinary system and Respiratory system.)
substances that binds H+, removing H+ from solution as H+ concentration begin to rise. OR releases H+ into solution of H+ concentrations begin to fall. Can restore pH FAST, within milliseconds.
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
Air present in pleural cavity. causes lung to collaps.
partial/all of lung collapse.