46 notecards = 12 pages (4 cards per page)
The centromere is a region in which
A) Chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase
B) Metaphase chromosomes become aligned at the metaphase plate
C) Chromosomes are grouped during telophase
D) The nucleus is located prior to mitosis
Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?
If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?
For a newly evolving protist, what would be the advantage of using eukaryote-like cell division rather than binary fission?
A) Binary fission would not allow for the formation of new organisms.
B) Cell division would allow for the orderly and efficient segregation of multiple linear chromosomes.
C) Cell division would be faster than binary fission.
D) Cell division allows for lower raters of error per chromosome replication.
Suppose a biologist can separate one of a dozen pieces of chromatin from a eukaryotic (animal) nucleus. It might consist of which of the following?
A) one-twelfth the genes of the organism
B) two chromosomes, each with six chromatids
C) a single circular piece of DNA
D) Two long strands of DNA plus proteins
In which group of eukaryotic organisms does nuclear envelop remain intact during mitosis?
A) seedless plants
D) dinoflagellates and diatoms only
If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly desirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to establishing a line of such plants?
A) Backtrack through her previous experiments to obtain another plant with the same traits
B) Breed this plant with another plant with much weaker traits
C) Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one
D) Force the plant to self-pollinate to obtain an identical one
The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?
A) every human cell
B) each human chromosome
C) the entire DNA of a single human
D) the entire human population
In the human species, all somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. Which of the following can also be true?
A) A plant species has 46 chromosomes per cell.
B) some adult humans have 69 chromosomes per cell
C) Some adult humans have 23 chromosomes per cell.
D) A certain fungal species has only one chromosme per cell.
Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction?
A) Asexual reproduction, but not sexual reproduction, is characteristic of plants and fungi
B) In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit 50% of their genes to each of their offspring
C) In asexual reproduction, offspring are produced by fertilization without meiosis.
D) Sexual reproduction requires that parents be diploid.
Which of the following defines a genome?
A) representation of a complete set of a cell's polypeptides
B) the complete set of an organism's polypeptides
C) the complete set of a species' polypeptides
D) the complete set of an organism's genes
At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?
The human X and Y chromosomes
A) are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike
B) are of approximately equal size and number of genes
C) are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names
D) include genes that determine an individual's sex
Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n=16?
A) The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell
B) The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell
C) Each cell has eight homologous pairs
D) During the S phase of the cell cycle there will be 32 separate chromosomes
Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?
I. Alternation of generations
A) I, IV, and V
B) I, II, and IV
C) II, III, and IV
D) I, II, III, IV, and V
Which of these statements is false?
A) In humans, each of the 22 maternal autosomes has a homologous paternal chromosome.
B) In humans, the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, determines whether the person is female (XX) or male (XY).
C) Single, haploid (n) sets of chromosomes in ovum and sperm unite during fertilization, forming a diploid (2n), single-celled zygote.
D) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.
Referring to a plant's sexual life cycle, which of the following
terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of
Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?
A karyotype results from which of the following?
Which of the following can utilize both mitosis and meiosis in the
When Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed his red-eyed F₁ generation flies to each other, the F₂ generation included both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, all the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result?
A) The gene involved is on the Y chromosome.
Sturtevant provided genetic evidence for the existence of four pairs
of chromosomes in Drosophila in which of these ways?
Which of the following is the meaning of the chromosome theory of inheritance as expressed in the early 20th century?
A) Individuals inherit particular chromosomes attached to
Thomas Hunt Morgan's choice of Drosophila melanogaster has been proven to be useful even today. Which of the following has/have continued to make it a most useful species?
I. its four pairs of chromosomes
A) I and IV only
A woman is found to have 47 chromosomes, including three X chromosomes. Which of the following describes her expected phenotype?
A) masculine characteristics such as facial hair
Males are more often affected by sex-linked traits than females because
A) male hormones such as testosterone often alter the effects of
mutations on the X chromosome.
SRY is best described in which of the following ways?
A) a gene present on the X chromosome that triggers female
In cats, black fur color is caused by an X-linked allele; the other
allele at this locus causes orange color. The heterozygote is
tortoiseshell. What kinds of offspring would you expect from the cross
of a black female and an orange male?
Red-green color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait in humans.
Two people with normal color vision have a color-blind son. What are
the genotypes of the parents?
Calico cats are female because
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a gene on the human X chromosome. The patients have muscles that weaken over time because they have absent or decreased dystrophin, a muscle protein. They rarely live past their 20s. How likely is it for a woman to have this condition?
A) Women can never have this condition.
Which of the following statements is true of linkage?
What is the reason that linked genes are inherited together?
One possible result of chromosomal breakage is for a fragment to join
a nonhomologous chromosome. What is this alteration called?
A nonreciprocal crossover causes which of the following products?
Which of the following variations on translation would be most
disadvantageous for a cell?
the nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group?
A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5' AGT
3'. The corresponding codon for the mRNA transcribed is
The genetic code is essentially the same for all organisms. From
this, one can logically assume which of the following?
Which of the following provides some evidence that RNA probably
evolved before DNA?
Which of the following statements best describes the termination of
transcription in prokaryotes?
Which of the following does not occur in prokaryotic eukaryotic gene
expression, but does in eukaryotic gene expression?
In eukaryotes there are several different types of RNA polymerase.
Which type is involved in transcription of mRNA for a globin protein?
A part of the promoter, called the TATA box, is said to be highly
conserved in evolution. Which of the following might this
During splicing, which molecular component of the spliceosome
catalyzes the excision reaction?
Alternative RNA splicing