- Print the notecards
- Fold each page in half along the solid vertical line
- Cut out the notecards by cutting along each horizontal dotted line
- Optional: Glue, tape or staple the ends of each notecard together

front 1 Population | back 1 the entire set of individuals of interest to a researcher. although the entire population usually does not participate in a research study, the results from the study are generalized to the entire population |

front 2 sample | back 2 set of individuals selected from a population and usually is intended to represent the population in a research study |

front 3 target population | back 3 the group defined by the researcher's specific interests |

front 4 representativeness | back 4 of a sample refers to the extent to which the characteristics of the sample accurately reflect the characteristics of a population |

front 5 representative sample | back 5 sample with the same characteristics as the population |

front 6 biased sample | back 6 a sample with different characteristics from those of the population |

front 7 selection bias or sampling bias | back 7 occurs when participants or subjects are selected in a manner that increases the probability of obtaining a biased sample |

front 8 sampling | back 8 is the process of selecting individuals to participate in a research study |

front 9 probability sampling | back 9 the entire population is known, each individual in the population has a specifiable probability of selection, and sampling occurs by a random process based on the probabilities |

front 10 random process | back 10 is a procedure that produces one outcome from a set of possible outcomes. must be unpredictable each time, and the process must guarantee that each of the possible outcomes is equally likely to occur |

front 11 nonprobability sampling | back 11 the population is not completely known, individual probabilities cannot be known, and the sampling method is based on factors such as common sense or ease, with an effort to maintain representativeness and avoid bias |

front 12 Simple Random Sampling | back 12 obtained using a random process to select participants from a list consisting the total population. each individual has an equal and independent chance of selection |

front 13 Systematic Sampling | back 13 obtained by selecting every nth participant from a list containing the total population, after a random start |

front 14 Stratified Random Sampling | back 14 obtained by dividing the population into subgroups (strata) and then randomly selecting equal numbers from each of the subgroups |

front 15 Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling | back 15 obtained by subdividing the population into strata and then randomly selecting from each stratum a number of participants so that the proportions in the sample correspond to the proportions in the population |

front 16 Cluster Sampling | back 16 instead of selecting indivduals, a sample is obtained by randomly selecting clusters from a list of all the clusters that exist within the population |

front 17 Convenience Sampling | back 17 obtained by selecting individual participants who are easy to get |

front 18 Quota Sampling | back 18 obtained by identifying subgroups to be included, then establishing quotas for individuals to be selected through convenience from each subgroup |