58 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Strong competition can lead to _________ _________, local elimination of a competing species.
__________ _________, or camouflage, makes prey difficult to spot.
Animals with effective chemical defense often exhibit bright warning coloration, called __________ _________.
__________ mimicry: a harmless species mimics a harmful one.
________ mimicry: two unpalatable species mimic each other.
In _________, one organism, the parasite, derives nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process.
________ is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species.
__________: the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it.
________ __________ is the total number of different species in the community.
________ _________ of a community is the variety of organisms that make up the community.
_________ _________ is the proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community.
__________ _________ is the feeding relationships between organisms in a community. It is a key factor in community dynamics.
_________ _________ are those that are most abundant or have the highest biomass.
_________ ________ are not necessarily abundant in a community.
Some ________ _______ act as facilitators that have positive effects on survival and reproduction of some other species in the community.
The __________ model of community organization proposes a unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels. In this case, presence or absence of mineral nutrients determines community structure, including abundance of primary producers.
The ______ model proposes that control comes from the trophic level above.
Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of
According to the competitive exclusion principle, two species cannot
continue to occupy the same
Which of the following is an example of cryptic
Which of the following is an example of Müllerian
Which of the following is an example of Batesian
Which of the following is an example of aposematic coloration?
Dwarf mistletoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest
trees. They obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of
the trees. The trees derive no known benefits from the dwarf
mistletoes. Which of the following best describes the interactions
between dwarf mistletoes and trees?
Evidence shows that some grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of
the following terms would best describe this plant-herbivore
Which of the following would be most significant in understanding the
structure of an ecological community?
Which of the following studies would a community ecologist undertake
to learn about competitive interactions?
White-breasted nuthatches and Downy woodpeckers both eat insects that
hide in the furrows of bark in hardwood trees. The Downy woodpecker
searches for insects by hunting from the bottom of the tree trunk to
the top, whereas the white-breasted nuthatch searches from the top of
the trunk down. These hunting behaviors best illustrate which of the
following ecological concepts?
Monarch butterflies are protected from birds and other predators
because of cardiac glycosides they incorporate into their tissues from
eating milkweed when they were in their caterpillar stage. The wings
of a different species of butterfly, the Viceroy, look nearly
identical to the Monarch so predators that have learned not to eat the
bad-tasting Monarch avoid Viceroys as well. This example best
Prairie dogs once covered the expanses of the Great Plains. Their
grazing made the grass more nutritious for the huge herds of bison,
and they were preyed upon by a variety of snakes, raptors, and
mammals. In fact, the black-footed ferret (now endangered) specialized
in prairie dog predation. Today, increases in housing and agricultural
developments have eradicated many prairie dog towns. Which of the
following statements about prairie dogs is true?
Which statement best describes the evolutionary significance of
How might an ecologist test whether a species is occupying its
realized or its fundamental niche?
Which of the following terms is used by ecologists to describe the
community interaction where one organism makes the environment more
suitable for another organism?
How did Eugene Odum describe an ecological niche?
Approximately how many kg of carnivore biomass can be supported by a
field plot containing 1,000 kg of plant material?
In a tide pool, 15 species of invertebrates were reduced to eight
after one species was removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
Elephants are not the most dominant species in African grasslands,
yet they influence community structure. The grasslands contain
scattered woody plants, but they are kept in check by the uprooting
activities of the elephants. Take away the elephants, and the
grasslands convert to forests or to shrublands. The newly growing
forests support fewer species than the previous grasslands. Which of
the following describes why elephants are the keystone species in this
Why are food chains relatively short?
Which term do ecologists use to describe the ability of a community
either to resist change or to recover to its original state after
In a particular case of secondary succession, three species of wild
grass all invaded a field. By the second season, a single species
dominated the field. A possible factor in this secondary succession
Why do moderate levels of disturbance result in an increase in
Species richness increases
There are more species in tropical areas than in places more distant
from the equator. This is probably a result of
A community's actual evapotranspiration is a reflection of
Why do tropical communities tend to have greater species diversity
than temperate or polar communities?
Why is a pathogen generally more virulent in a new habitat?
During the course of the formation of a parasite/host relationship, a
critical first step in this evolution would be
Which letter represents an organism that could be a carnivore?
Which letter represents an organism that could be a producer?
Which letter represents an organism that could be a primary consumer?
Which of the following would be considered a keystone
species in McDonaldland?
Which two "species" are likely to compete for the same
According to the McDonaldland scenario, which of the following would
best define an ecological community?
In a two-week marketing analysis, McDonald's was interested in
finding out the popularity of the Big Mac. Using the
realized/fundamental niche concept of community
ecology, what should the marketing researchers do?
The feeding relationships among the species in a community determine
The principle of competitive exclusion states that
Keystone predators can maintain species diversity in a community if
The most plausible hypothesis to explain why species richness is
higher in tropical than in temperate regions is that