62 notecards = 16 pages (4 cards per page)
_______ _______ is the study of populations in relation to environment, including environmental influences on density and distribution, age structure, and population size.
A _________ is a group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area.
_________ is the number of individuals per unit area or volume.
__________ is the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population.
The _________ ________ of a population refers to the way individuals are spaced within their area. They can be clumped, uniform, and random.
__________ is the study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time.
a _______ ________ is an age-specific summary of the survival pattern of a population.
_________ _______ plot the proportion of individuals alive at each age.
Type ___: low death rates during early and middle life, then an increase in death rates among older age groups.
Type ___: the death rate is constant over the organisms's life span.
Type ___: high death rates for the young, then a slower death rate for survivors.
__________ growth model: the rate of population increases under ideal conditions, and cannot be sustained for long in any population.
________ growth model: this growth model takes into account limiting factors, environmental factors that restrict population growth.
__-selection, or density-dependent selection, selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction.
__-selection, or density-inependent selection, selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction.
In density-___________ populations, birth rate and death rate do not change with population density.
In density-__________ populations, birth rates fall and death rates rise with population density.
the study of ________ ________ focuses on the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in population size.
___________ are groups of populations linked by immigration and emigration.
The _________ _________ concept summarizes the aggregate land and water area needed to sustain the people of a nation.
Population ecologists are primarily interested in
A population is correctly defined as having which of the following characteristics?
I. inhabiting the same general area
A) I only
An ecologist recorded 12 white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus,
per square mile in one woodlot and 20 per square mile in another
woodlot. What was the ecologist comparing?
During the spring, you are studying the mice that live in a field
near your home. The population density is high, but you realize that
you rarely observe any reproductive female mice. This most likely
Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most
often associated with
To construct a reproductive table for a sexual species, one needs to
Which of the following sets of measurements is the most useful when
Which of the following scenarios would provide the most legitimate
data on population density?
Which of the following best defines a cohort?
Exponential growth of a population is represented by dN/dt =
A. SEE IMAGE
Starting from a single individual, what is the size of a population
of bacteria that reproduce by binary fission every 20 minutes at the
end of a 2-hour time period? (Assume unlimited resources and no
Which of the following is the equation for zero population
In July 2008, the United States had a population of approximately
302,000,000 people. How many Americans were there in July 2009, if the
estimated 2008 growth rate was 0.88%?
In 2008, the population of New Zealand was approximately 4,275,000
people. If the birth rate was 14 births for every 1,000 people,
approximately how many births occurred in New Zealand in 2008?
Logistic growth of a population is represented by dN/dt =
A. SEE IMAGE
As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is
predicted by the logistic equation?
In models of logistic population growth,
Carrying capacity is
Which of the following causes populations to shift most quickly from
an exponential to a logistic population growth?
Which of the following statements about the evolution of life
histories is correct?
Which of the following is characteristic of K-selected populations?
Which of the following is most likely to contribute to
density-dependent regulation of populations?
Why do populations grow more slowly as they approach their carrying
Which of the following could be a
density-independent factor limiting human population
An ecological footprint is a construct that is
Which statement best explains survivorship curve B?
A population's carrying capacity
During exponential growth, a population always
Why do some invertebrates, such as lobsters, show a
"stair-step" survivorship curve?
Consider two forests: one is an undisturbed old-growth forest, while
the other has recently been logged. In which forest are species likely
to experience exponential growth, and why?
Natural selection involves energetic trade-offs between
In which of the following situations would you expect to find the
largest number of K-selected individuals?
Which of the following was the most significant limiting factor in
human population growth in the 20th century?
Which curve best describes survivorship in marine molluscs?
Which curve best describes survivorship in elephants?
Which curve best describes survivorship in a marine crustacean that
Which curve best describes survivorship in humans who live in
Population ecologists follow the fate of same-age cohorts to
A recent study of ecological footprints concluded that
The observation that members of a population are uniformly
distributed suggests that
According to the logistic growth equation
A) the number of individuals added per unit time is greatest when N
is close to zero.
Which of the following statements about human population in
industrialized countries is incorrect?