58 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Fungi are __________, which use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organize compounds
___________ are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots.
Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of ______, either sexually or asexually.
Fungal nuclei are normally __________, with the exception of transient diploid stages formed during the sexual life cycles.
Fungi sexual reproduction requires the fusion of _______ from different mating types.
Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called __________ (like insects) to communicate their mating type.
__________ is the union of two parent mycelia.
_________ is the fusion of nuclei from parent fungi, thus making nuclei diploid.
Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are ________ (unicellular fungi), which inhabit moist environments.
many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage. mycologists have traditionally called these ___________, or imperfect fungi.
_________ are unicellular parasites of animals and protists.
__________ (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats; they can be unicellular and colony-forming.
The __________ (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit great diversity of life histories. they are resistant to freezing and drying and can survive unfavorable conditions.
The __________ were once considered zygomycetes. They are now classified in a separate clade. they form arbuscular mycorrhizae: hyphae extend into plant roots, branch forming arbuscules.
__________ are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots.
__________ fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex.
__________ _________ fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane.
_________ live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci, usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps. commonly called sac fungi.
__________ include mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, smuts. the phylum is defined by a club-like structure called a basidium, a transient diploid stage in the life cycle. also called club fungi.
Fungi are efficient _________; they perform essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world.
a ________ is a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
The general term for a fungal infection in animals and humans is ________.
Some fungi are used to produce antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections, for example the ascomycete __________.
Which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi
What do fungi and arthropods have in common?
In septate fungi, what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to
distribute needed nutrients, synthesized compounds, and organelles
throughout the hyphae?
What accounts most directly for the extremely fast growth of a fungal
The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are
Consider two hyphae having equal dimensions: one from a septate
species and the other from a coenocytic species. Compared with the
septate species, the coenocytic species should have
Immediately after karyogamy occurs, which term applies?
Which description does not apply equally well to both sexual and
Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following?
1. cells with a single haploid nucleus
A) 1 or 2
In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy,
If all of their nuclei are equally active transcriptionally, then the
cells of both dikaryotic and heterokaryotic fungi, in terms of the
gene products they can make, are essentially
Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cell's
chromosome number than does meiosis I?
Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes?
Which of the following characteristics is shared by both chytrids and
other kinds of fungi?
The multicellular condition of animals and fungi seems to have arisen
What are the sporangia of the bread mold Rhizopus?
Which of these paired fungal structures are structurally and
functionally most alike?
You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that
contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row.
What kind of a fungus is this?
Which of the following has the least affiliation with all of the
Among sac fungi, which of these correctly distinguishes ascospores
A fungal spore germinates, giving rise to a mycelium that grows
outward into the soil surrounding the site where the spore originally
landed. Which of the following accounts for the fungal movement, as
In what structures do both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce
Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, that inhibit the growth of
bacteria are known as
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and
In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide
to its photosynthetic partner?
Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of
the partners involved in lichens?
Which of the following terms refers to symbiotic relationships that
involve fungi living between the cells in plant leaves?
Sexual reproduction has never been observed among the fungi that
produce the blue-green marbling of blue cheeses. What is true of these
fungi and others that do not have a sexual stage?
Mycorrhizae are to the roots of vascular plants as endophytes are to
the ________ vascular plants.
All fungi share which of the following characteristics?
Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they
diverged earliest in fungal evolution?
Which of the following cells or structures are associated with
asexual reproduction in fungi?
The photosynthetic symbiont of a lichen is often
Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest
relatives of fungi?
The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of
fungal mycelia is primarily related to