52 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
If the sun were to suddenly stop providing energy to Earth, most ecosystems would vanish. Which of the following ecosystems would likely survive the longest after this hypothetical disaster?
Which of the following terms encompasses all of the others?
To recycle nutrients, an ecosystem must have, at a minimum, _____.
A.producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and
Which of the following is an example of an ecosystem?
A.the intricate interactions of the various plant and animal species
on a savanna during a drought
Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Which species is autotrophic?
Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Which species is most likely a decomposer on this food web?
Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Species C is toxic to predators. Which species is most likely to benefit from being a mimic of C?
Examine this food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem. Which pair of species could be omnivores?
A.A and D
If the figure above represents a marine food web, the smallest organism might be _____.
Which of the following organisms is INCORRECTLY paired with its trophic level?
A.grasshopper – primary consumer
Which of the following has the greatest effect on the rate of
chemical cycling in an
A.the rate of decomposition in the ecosystem
Matter is gained or lost in ecosystems. How does this occur?
A.Heterotrophs convert heat to energy.
The relationship between biomass and primary productivity is that _____.
A.biomass is the rate of primary productivity
Which category in the figure above makes available the highest productivity per square meter?
Considering its total area covered, which ecosystem type represented in the figure above has a very low level of economic impact on Earth's ecosystem?
A.rock, sand, and ice
Why is terrestrial productivity higher in equatorial climates?
A.Productivity increases with temperature.
After looking at the experiment in the figure above, what can be said about productivity in marine ecosystems?
A.Iron can be a limiting nutrient in
During a year, plants never use 100% of the incoming solar radiation
for photosynthesis. What is a reasonable explanation for this?
Suppose you are studying the nitrogen cycling in a pond ecosystem over the course of a month. While you are collecting data, a flock of one hundred Canada geese lands and spends the night during a fall migration. What could you do to eliminate error in your study as a result of this event?
A.Find out how much nitrogen is eliminated by a Canada goose over
about a twelve-hour period, multiply this number by 100, and subtract
that amount from the total nitrogen in the ecosystem.
As big as it is, the ocean is nutrient-limited. If you wanted to investigate this phenomenon, one reasonable approach would be to _____.
A.observe Antarctic Ocean productivity from year to year to see if
Which of the following is a true statement regarding mineral nutrients in soils and their implication for primary productivity?
A.Phosphorous is sometimes unavailable to producers due to
Why is net primary production (NPP) a more useful measurement to an ecosystem ecologist than gross primary production (GPP)?
A.NPP shows the rate at which the standing crop is utilized by
How is net ecosystem production (NEP) typically estimated in ecosystems?
A.the rate of decomposition by detritivores
How is it that satellites can detect differences in primary productivity on Earth?
A.Satellites compare the wavelengths of light captured and reflected
by photoautotrophs in different ecosystems.
Acid precipitation lowered the pH of soil in a terrestrial ecosystem that supported a diverse community of plants and animals. The decrease in pH eliminated all nitrogenfixing bacteria populations in the area. Which prediction most accurately reflects the impact this will have on the community?
A.The decrease in pH actually increases the availability of soil
nutrients, so other nutrients that were less available cause an
increase in primary production and an increase in biomass at other
_____ are secondary consumers.
Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level.
10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer.
Approximately what percentage of the energy in the caterpillar’s food
is actually used for secondary production (growth)?
Why is a diagram of energy flow from trophic level to trophic level shaped like a pyramid?
A.Organisms at each level store most of the energy and pass little
h one of the following correctly ranks these organisms in order from lowest to highest percent in production efficiency?
A.mammals, insects, fish
Owls eat rats, mice, shrews, and small birds. Assume that, over a period of time, an owl consumes 5000 J of animal material. The owl loses 2300 J in feces and owl pellets and uses 2500 J for cellular respiration. What is the production efficiency of this owl?
After looking at the figure above, what can be said about productivity in this ecosystem?
A.Productivity increases with each trophic level.
How does inefficient transfer of energy among trophic levels result in the typically high endangerment status of many top-level predators?
A.Predators have relatively large population sizes.
Why does a vegetarian leave a smaller ecological footprint than an omnivore?
A.Eating meat is an inefficient way of acquiring photosynthetic
For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids composed of species abundances, biomass, and energy are similar in that they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for this pattern is that _____.
A.at each step, energy is lost from the system
Which of the following is primarily responsible for limiting the number of trophic levels in most ecosystems?
A.Decomposers compete with higher-order consumers for nutrients and
Which trophic level is most vulnerable to extinction?
A.tertiary consumer level
Consider the food chain of grass → grasshopper → mouse → snake → hawk. About how much of the chemical energy fixed by photosynthesis of the grass (100 percent) is available to the hawk?
An ecosystem is unlikely to be limited by the supply of _____ because it is obtained from the air.
Biogeochemical cycles are crucial to ecosystem function because _____.
A.they keep the planet warm enough for living things to
Based on the experiment in the figure above, which of the following
are plausible reasons for the result?
A.only I, II, and IV
Consider the global water cycle depicted in the figure above. Which one of the reserves contains the smallest percentage of global water?
Consider the global nitrogen cycle depicted in the figure above. What is the limiting portion of the cycle for plants?
A.nitrogen lost to the atmosphere
Consider the global nitrogen cycle depicted in the figure above. How are humans altering this cycle?
A.industrial nitrogen fixation
Which of the following locations are major reservoirs for carbon for
the carbon cycle?
A.only I and III
Which of the following statements is correct about biogeochemical cycling?
A.The phosphorus cycle involves the recycling of atmospheric
The Hubbard Brook watershed deforestation experiment revealed that
Why do logged tropical rain forest soils typically have nutrient-poor soils?
A.Most of the nutrients in the ecosystem are removed in the
The discipline that applies ecological principles to returning degraded ecosystems to a more natural state is known as _____.
Which of the following would be considered an example of bioremediation?
A.adding seeds of a chromium-accumulating plant to soil contaminated
The goal of restoration ecology is to _____.
A.prevent further degradation by protecting an area with park