54 notecards = 14 pages (4 cards per page)
According to the principle of competitive exclusion, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.
Of the choices below, which best describes the effect predation has on the predator/prey organisms involved in the relationship?
A.no effect ... benefit
The term used to describe a harmless organism resembling a harmful one is _____.
Cellulose-digesting microorganisms live in the guts of termites and ruminant mammals. The microorganisms have a home and food, and their hosts gain more nutrition from their meals. This relationship is an example of _____.
In the hypothesis that C. stellatus (a species of barnacle) is competitively excluded from the lower intertidal zone by B. balanoides (another species of barnacle), what could be concluded about the two species?
A.The fundamental and realized niches of B. balanoides are
different, but the fundamental and realized niches of C. stellatus are
As you study two closely related predatory insect species, the two-spot and the three-spot avenger beetles, you notice that each species seeks prey at dawn in areas without the other species. However, where their ranges overlap, the two-spot avenger beetle hunts at night and the three-spot hunts in the morning. When you bring them into the laboratory and isolate the two different species, you discover that the offspring of both species are found to be nocturnal. You have discovered an example of _____.
Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive exclusion?
A.The random distribution of one competing species will have a
positive impact on the population growth of the other competing
The symbols +, -, and o are to be used to show the results of interactions between individuals and groups of individuals in the examples that follow. The symbol + denotes a positive interaction, - denotes a negative interaction, and o denotes where individuals are not affected by interacting. The first symbol refers to the first organism mentioned.
What interactions exist between a tick on a dog and the dog?
If two species are close competitors, and one species is experimentally removed from the community, the remaining species would be expected to _____.
A.expand its realized niche
During a one-year study, researchers found no difference in treehopper populations in any of their control and experimental groups. What could they measure during the second year to gain information about why this might have occurred?
A.Measure the relative abundance of jumping spiders.
Resource partitioning would be most likely to occur between _____.
A.sympatric populations of species with similar ecological
Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?
A.markings of a viceroy butterfly's wings
Which of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?
A.a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest
Which of the following is an example of Müllerian mimicry?
A.a chameleon that changes its color to look like a dead
Which of the following is an example of aposematic coloration?
A.green color of a plant
In some circumstances, grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of the following terms would best describe such a plant-herbivore interaction?
Which of the following studies would a community ecologist undertake
to learn about competitive interactions?
A.only I and II
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.
A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.
Keystone species are those species _____.
A.whose absence would cause major disruption in a
An organism's "trophic level" refers to _____.
A.its food source
What does the graph in the figure above tell you about the definition of a keystone species?
A.Adding a keystone species to the community will make it more
In the figure above, which community has the highest species diversity?
Elephants are not the most dominant species in African grasslands, yet they influence community structure. The grasslands contain scattered woody plants, but they are kept in check by the uprooting activities of the elephants. Take away the elephants, and the grasslands convert to forests or to shrublands. The newly growing forests support fewer species than the previous grasslands. Which of the following describes why elephants are the keystone species in this scenario?
A.Grazing animals depend upon the elephants to convert forests to
Approximately how many kilograms (kg) of carnivore (secondary consumer) biomass can be supported by a field plot containing 1000 kg of plant material?
According to the Shannon Diversity Index, which of the five blocks above, with each containing thirty-six squares, would show the greatest diversity?
Imagine five forest communities, each with one hundred individuals distributed among four different tree species (W, X, Y, and Z). Which forest community would be most diverse?
A.40W, 30X, 20Y, 10Z
Which letter represents an organism that could be a producer?
Which of the following could qualify as a top-down control on a grassland community?
A.influence of soil nutrients on the abundance of grasses versus
Food chains are sometimes short because _____.
A.only a single species of herbivore feeds on each plant
Keystone predators can maintain species diversity in a community if they _____.
A.competitively exclude other predators
Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?
Which of the following statements is in accordance with F. E. Clements’ view that species in a community function as an integrated unit?
A.Species composition is determined by island size and distance from
Which of the following best illustrates ecological succession?
A.Decomposition in soil releases nitrogen that plants can
What is the main advantage of controlled burnings of forested areas? Controlled burnings _____.
A.allow new species to form
According to the nonequilibrium model of community diversity, _____.
A.communities are assemblages of closely linked species that are
irreparably changed by disturbance
Based on the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, a community's species diversity is increased by _____.
A.stable conditions with no disturbance
According to MacArthur and Wilson's hypothesis of island biogeography, species immigration and extinction rates on a particular island correlate to _____.
A.the number of other islands in the archipelago
What kind of island has the highest rate of extinction?
A.a small island
On what kind of island would new species be most likely to arrive?
A.a small island
The equilibrium theory of island biogeography predicts that large
islands close to the mainland will have more species than small
islands that are distant from the mainland.
A.Large islands support larger populations than small islands. Small
populations are more likely to go extinct.
Which island would likely have the greatest species diversity?
Which of the following is a widely supported explanation for the tendency of tropical communities to have greater species diversity than temperate or polar communities?
A.Tropical communities are generally older than temperate and polar
Which island would likely have the lowest extinction rate?
Why is a pathogen generally more virulent in a new habitat?
A.New environments are almost always smaller in area so that
transmission of pathogens is easily accomplished between
Zoonotic disease _____.
A.is caused by pathogens that are transferred from other animals to
B.humans by direct contact or by means of a vector
What is a likely outcome of a moderate disturbance, such as a severe
A.Loss of an equilibrium state of balance, leading to a less healthy
Which of the following may result from resource
A.Competing species may partition time, feeding at different times
A & B
Select the correct statement(s) about a terrestrial food
A.About 1% of the energy stored in producers is converted to organic
matter at the secondary consumer level.
Select the correct statement(s) about the transfer of food energy up
the trophic levels from its source in autotrophs.
A.An organism feeds at only one trophic level.
Gray wolves, once the top predators in Yellowstone National Park,
were hunted to extinction there in 1926. In 1995, 15 wolves were
brought to Yellowstone from Alberta. The wolf population has now grown
A.Riparian vegetation would decline.