32 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
sites where 2 or more bones meet
Name the functions of joints
How are joints classified?
joined by fibrous tissues and ligaments, no cavity present; so slightly movable.
sutures (e.g. cranial bones)
syndesmoses (tibia and fubula, radius and ulna)
gomphoses (peg in socket joints of teeth and alveolar sockets)
united by cartilages; no cavity, movable; e.g. pubic symphysis
synchordoses (ribs and sternum, costal cartilage)
there is cavity, bones are separated by fluid= synovial fluid freely movable; i.e. shoulder joint, hip joint)
Features of Synovial Joints
Factors that influence Synovial joint
Types of mucle attachments of Synovial Joints
Types of Movements of Synovial joints
Supination and pronation
turning backward and turning forward (i.w. radius around the ulna)
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of foot
up and down movement of foot at ankle
inversion and eversion
sole moves medially or laterally
protraction and retraction
anterior and posterior movement at transverse plane
elevation and depression
lifting a body part superiorly or moving inferiorly.
I.E- superior- shrugging shoulder (scapulae) and inferior (mandible movement when chewing gum
touch thumb to the finger tips of the other finger
6 types of synovial joints based on shape of articular srufaces
Plane (intercarpal joints)
- nonaxial joints, flat articular surfaces & short gliding movements
Hinge (elbow joints)
uniaxial joints, motion along a single plane & flexion and extension only
(round end fits to a ring; proximal radius joint): rounded end of one bone conforms to a "sleeve" or ring of another bone & uniaxial movement only
(metacarpal joints): biaxial joints, both articular surfaces are oval and permit all angular movements
(carpal-metacarpal joint of thumb): biaxial, allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints. Each articular surface has both concave and convex areas
Ball and socket
(shoulder point): multiaxial joints, the most freely moving synovial joints
Joints that surround the knee joing
single joint cavity: femoro-patella, lateral and medial tibiofemoral and minisci of the tibi
ball and socket joint- head of humerus an glenoid fossa of the scapula
stability is sacrificed for greater freedom of movement
radius and ulna articulate w/the humerus, hinge joint formed mainly by trochlear notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus. Flexion and extension only.
hip joint. ball and socket joint. Head of the femur articulates w/the acetabulum. Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket.
Acetabular labrum- enhances depth of socket
mandibular condyle articulates w/the temporal bone.
2 types of movement- hinge- depression and elevation of mandible
and gliding- side to side (i.e.- grinding teeth)
Common joint injuries