203 notecards = 51 pages (4 cards per page)
The structure protects and regulates the temperature of the testes?
This structure is the site of sperm production?
How many seminiferous tubules are found in the lobules?
These cells may eventually become spermatozoa?
These cells secrete testosterone?
This hormone stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone?
This straight tubules in the testis lead into the?
The function of the epididymis is?
This is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the vas deferens
This lies posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum and secretes an alkaline, fructose filled fluid?
These are located inferior to the prostate on the other side of the membranous urethra within the deep muscles of the perineum?
This is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous tissue?
This ligament arises from the pubic symphysis in males?
What is produced by the ovaries?
Secondary oocytes, Estrogen, and Progesterone
This attaches the ovaries and uterus to the pelvic wall?
This is the site of fertilization?
This is the portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina?
Anterior to the vagina and urethral opening is the?
Skene's glands secrete?
_______hormone secreted by the _______ controls the ovarian and uterine cycles?
This hormone promotes spermatogenesis?
This hormone triggers ovulation?
This is secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation?
This is the uterine phase when the endometrium becomes more vascular?
This is the ovarian phase between the end of the menstruation and beginning of ovulation?
Fertilization normally occurs within which structure?
This is a series of functional changes that sperm go through when they are in the female reproductive tract?
The fusion of the secondary oocyte and the sperm results in which developmental stage?
This is the part of the blastocyst that promotes implantation and produces hCG?
This is the portion of the endometrium that lies between the embryo and the stratum basalis?
This develops from the epiblast and carries a protective fluid?
This will become the primary structure for exchange of material between the mother the fetus?
Chorionic villi of the placenta
Each somite may differentiate into a?
This is the connection between the placenta and the embryo?
How many pairs of pharyngeal arches are there?
This exam is performed between 14-16 weeks gestation and is used to detect genetic abnormalities?
CVS is taking cells from where?
This hormone is secreted by non-pregnant women from secretory cells in the hypothalamus?
During pregnancy stroke volume can increase by?
Labor can NOT take place until all of this hormone's effects are diminished?
This is the time from the onset of labor to the complete dilation of the cervix?
Stage of dilation
Involution is when?
The uterus decreases in size
In infants this connects the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava?
This is a principle hormone that releases milk into the mammary ducts?
This is a permanent change in an allele?
When phenotype can be drastically different depending on parental origin it is called?
An example of incomplete dominance is?
If one parent has type A blood and one parent has type B blood, what blood type is possible for their child?
AB, A, B, and O
If a child has B blood, and the mother has B blood, what is the possible genotype of the father?
B, O or AB
Chromosome #15 is considered what?
A Barr body is?
An inactivated X chromosome
What is the function of gonads?
Produce gametes and produce hormones
Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into?
The reproductive system includes?
Gonads & external genitalia, Ducts that receive & transport the gametes, and Accessory glands & organs that secrete fluids
Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
Both the Cremaster & the Dartos
The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the?
The spermatic cord is?
A bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis
The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the?
The make reproductive system is MOST closely associated with which of the following systems?
The _______ connects the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis?
Contraction of the cremaster muscles?
Pulls the testes closer to the body cavity
Contraction of the dartos muscle?
Elevates the scrotal sac
Sperm develop from stem cells called?
When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called?
The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by the first meiosis are called?
The process of spermiogenesis produces?
The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called?
Secondary spermatocytes each contain?
23 duplicates of chromosomes
In a mature human spermatozoan?
The acrosome is next to the nucleus, and the head contains 23 chromosomes
During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes fuse together during the process called ________ to form a ________.
How many tetrads form during synapsis?
Secondary spermatocytes divide to produce ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes each.
Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?
The daughter cell is directed toward the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
Interstitial cells produce?
Sperm production occurs in the?
Are found in the seminiferous tubules, Form the blood-testis barrier, and Coordinate spermatogenesis.
Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which
sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
4, 1, 3, 2
The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the?
Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the?
The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the?
The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the?
The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the?
The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the?
seminal glands (seminal vesicles)
Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct
Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except?
production of spermatozoa.
Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by?
Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in?
For erection to occur?
There must be sufficient blood hydrostatic pressure, The sacral spinal cord must be intact, and Nitric oxide must be present.
The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the?
The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the?
The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the?
The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the?
Emission and ejaculation?
Occurs under sympathetic stimulation, Begins with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla, Is responsible for propelling semen into the female reproductive tract and Involves contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle
The primary role of FSH in males is to?
initiate sperm production in the testes.
The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is?
Testosterone is secreted by the?
A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?
Increased sex drive, Decreased levels of GnRH, and Decreased levels of LH and FSH
A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will?
Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that?
the process of capacitation involves the removal of some inhibiting substances from the sperm.
The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they?
Are found in the areolar tissue between the tubules, Respond to luteinizing hormone, and Produce testosterone
The broad ligament is?
an extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.
The region where blood vessels enter the ovary is called the?
Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that?
About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty
The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete?
This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation?
The primary follicle develops from the?
Which of the following is greater?
the number of primordial follicles in the ovaries at birth
The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the?
The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the?
The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the?
The thick muscular layer of the uterus is the?
Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?
The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the uterine tubes.
The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the?
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?
has ciliated epithelium
The average length of the uterine cycle is?
During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?
the functional zone of the endometrium is restored.
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
consists of a basilar zone and a functional zone
The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.
All of the following are true of the vagina, except that it
loses a portion of its lining during menses.
The vagina is?
a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.
The vulva includes all of the following, except the?
The space bounded by the labia minora is the?
Fatty folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and vestibule are the?
Is derived from the same embryonic structures as the penis in males, Engorges with blood during sexual arousal, Is topped by a small erectile glans, and Contains erectile tissue comparable to the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix.
Another term for vulva is?
female external genitalia.
The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the?
The production of milk is called?
During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?
The fertilized ovum implants, Progesterone levels are high, Endometrial glands are enlarged, and The corpus luteum is formed
During the menses?
the old functional layer is sloughed off.
The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is?
The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is?
Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of?
The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers?
A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for?
Which is the function of the ovaries?
Secretion of hormones, Production of oocytes, Formation of immature gametes, and Secretion of inhibin
A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in?
After ovulation, the ovary secretes?
Both estrogen and progesterone
A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
the secretory phase
Secondary sexual characteristics?
may develop in response to testosterone or estrogen.
stimulates spermatogenesis and stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary.
On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?
first day of menses
After fertilization, the first cell division is completed?
more than a day later.
the male and female pronuclei fuse.
Which of the following is not part of fertilization?
completion of Meiosis I
The individual cells produced by cleavage are called
The gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period from conception to maturity is
Contact of a sperm with the oocyte membrane causes
Oocyte activation, Completion of the second meiosis, Membrane fusion, and Extrusion of the second polar body
Completion of cytokinesis leads to?
A doubling of blastomere number, A division of the cytoplasm into two portions, and Interphase
Each of the following statements concerning development is true, except that?
the first trimester is when the fetus looks distinctively human.
Under the influence of the trophoblast, maternal blood vessels in the endometrium?
break down and form lacunae.
A space opens within the inner cell mass that will form the?
The process of cell division that divides the cytoplasm of the zygote among blastomeres is called?
Attachment to and penetration of the endometrium by the blastocyst is referred to as?
________ are nearly identical cells that are produced by early cleavages?
The solid ball of cells that has been likened to a mulberry is called a?
A blastocyst is a(n)?
hollow ball of cells.
The inner cell mass of the blastocyst will?
form the embryo.
During implantation, the?
syncytial trophoblast erodes a path through the endometrium.
Which of these statements about the trophoblast is false?
is derived from the inner cell mass
three germ layers are formed.
The region known as the primitive streak is the site of?
migration of ectodermal cells to form the mesoderm
The ectoderm forms?
The mesoderm forms?
The endoderm forms?
the urinary bladder.
The trophoblast has many of the characteristics of ________ cells.
By day 12 of embryonic development, mesoderm begins to form through?
The oval, three-layered sheet produced by gastrulation is called the ________.
Ectoderm is to ________ as mesoderm is to ________.
nervous system; muscular system
The mesoderm and the trophoblast combine to form the
The extraembryonic membrane that forms blood cells is the
The extraembryonic membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac is the?
All of the following are true of the allantois, except that
it acts as the fetal bone marrow.
Which of these is not one of the extraembryonic membranes?
Which of the following is one of the critical events of the first trimester?
Cleavage, Implantation, Placentation, and Gastrulation
The hormone that increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy is?
The placenta is a source of which of these hormones?
hCG, Relaxin, Progesterone, and Placental lactogen
If fertilization occurs, the ________ is maintained because the embryo secretes ________.
corpus luteum; human chorionic gonadotrophin
The period of gestation when the rudiments of all major organ systems are established is the ________ trimester
The period of gestation that is characterized by the largest fetal weight gain and fat deposition is the ________ trimester.
The period of gestation when organs and organ systems complete most of their development and the fetus looks distinctly human is the ________ trimester.
Embryological and early fetal development occur in the ________ trimester.
All of the following occur during pregnancy, except that?
A woman's bladder capacity increases.
During gestation, contraction of the myometrium is inhibited by ________, produced by the placenta.
The first stage of labor is the ________ stage.
The stage of labor during which the fetus emerges from the vagina is called the ________ stage.
Stretching of the cervix causes an increase in the blood levels of
Progesterone calms the myometrium and prevents contraction. What factors antagonize progesterone and trigger labor and delivery?
Rising estrogen levels increase sensitivity, Rising oxytocin levels lead to uterine contractions, Distortion of the myometrium, and Distortion of the cervix
The prostaglandins produced in the endometrium?
stimulate smooth muscle contractions.
The neonatal period extends?
for the first month of life.
The infancy stage of life is considered to be over at?
All of the following occur at puberty, except that?
GnRH levels decline.
Which of these hormones is the cause of most puberty related changes in a female?
Which of these is a puberty related change caused by increased testosterone levels?
accelerated bone deposition and skeletal growth
Non-sex chromosomes are called?
The alternate forms of any one gene are called?
If an individual carries a pair of alleles that are the same, the individual is ________ for the trait.
If an individual carries two different alleles for the same trait, the individual is ________ for the trait.
In simple autosomal inheritance, phenotypic characters are determined, or controlled, by?
a single pair of alleles.
In polygenic inheritance, phenotypic characters are?
determined by interactions among several genes.
If a color-blind (X-linked recessive trait) man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait, what proportion of their male offspring can be expected to be color blind?