48 notecards = 12 pages (4 cards per page)
What are 5 adaptations for Hot Environments?
What are 2 adaptations for cold environments?
Describe how organisms can decrease conductance for a cold environment adaptation.
Describe how organisms increase heat production for a cold environment adaptation.
Describe brown fat.
Which 2 fishes are known to be Endothermic?
Sharks and Tuna
Describe the physiology of Endothermic fish.
They have counter-current exchange in muscles.
What are the three types of Adaptive Hypothermia.
What are the three types of extracellular fluid.
Blood, Plasma, and interstitial fluid
Describe the percentage of fluid in the Human body.
Describe the tissue fluid of invertebrates with no circulatory system.
Describe the fluid of invertebrates with an open circulatory system.
Describe the composition of Mammalian blood.
Describe the 4 steps of Hemostasis.
Describe an open circulatory system.
Describe the closed circulatory system.
Vertebrate circulation is tied to what?
Describe the Circulation and Respiration in fishes.
Describe the circulation and respiration in salamanders.
The heart is partially separated and Respiration happens via the lungs and skin.
Describe the circulation and respiration in Mammals.
They have a separate pulmonary and systemic circuit
The blood in the right side of the heart is what? (oxygen)
Describe the movement of blood in the right side of the heart.
The blood in the left side of the heart is what? (oxygen)
Describe the movement of blood in the left side of the heart.
Myogenic Contraction is featured in which organisms?
Vertebrates and Molluscs.
Sinoatrial nodes can be found in which organisms?
Neurogenic Contraction is featured in which organisms?
Crustaceans and Annelids
What is the Cardiac center in Vertebrates?
What is the contaction of the heart called?
What is the relaxation of the heart called?
name the 5 types of blood vessels.
What is the purpose of the lymphatic system.
To drain interstitial spaces
The lymph nodes of the lymphatic system are meant to do what?
What do the lymph nodes of the lymphatic system contain?
A form of respiration in which gas exchange occurs across the skin or outer integument of an organism rather than gills or lungs.
The gills of an animal, most typically an amphibian, that are exposed to the environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits, as they are in most fishes
What do sea stars use for respiration
What do Polychaets use for respiration?
Brachial Tufts, Parapodia
What do fish, Mollusc, and Arthropods use for Respiration?
What do Insects use for respiration?
Describe the characteristics of terrestrial respiration using lungs.
Why is respiration using lungs inefficient?
Describe the outer feature of the mammalian respiratory system.
Describe the internal features of the mammalian respiratory system.
What do frogs use for ventilation?
What do we as humans use for ventilation?
The lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied
What controls tidal volume?
The Medulla Oblongata