76 notecards = 19 pages (4 cards per page)
Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus?
Which of the following is not a way that sensory receptors are classified?
Sensitivity to a stimulus
Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?
Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):
Roots, trunks, divisions, and cords
The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the _______.
A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ____.
Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the Level of L4 to S4 form the ___.
Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ___.
Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are___.
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ____.
_____ are stimulated when sound waves vibrate hair cells in the inner ear.
Which of the following pairs of receptors appear to play complementary roles in hairy and hairless skin?
Tactile corpuscles and hair follicle receptors
At which level of the somatosensory system are conscious decisions made about low-grade touch stimuli?
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ____.
The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ___nerve.
Which cranial nerve is the largest?
Trigeminal nerve (V)
Which cranial nerve is the only one that exists in the "posterior" side of the brainstem?
Trochlear nerve (IV)
How many cranial nerves are responsible for eye movement?
3; Oculomotor nerve (III), Trochlear nerve (IV), and Abducens nerve (VI)
What does "abducens" refer to?
Moves the eye laterally causing abduction of the eye.
Which cranial nerves cary gustatory (taste) information?
Facial nerve (VII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), Vagus nerve (X)
Which cranial nerve is the longest?
Vagus nerve (X)
What 2 cranial nerves carry sensory information about blood pressure to the brain?
Glossopharyngeal neve (IX), and Vagus nerve (X)
Which cranial nerve is responsible for pupillary constriction?
Oculomotor nerve (III)
Which nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle?
Trochlear nerve (IV)
Which is the longest cranial nerve?
Vagus nerve (X)
Damage to this nerve would cause dizziness, nausea, and loss of balance.
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
This nerve is involved in movement of the digestive tract.
Vagus nerve (X)
Damage to this would would cause difficulty in speech and swallowing, but no effect on visceral organs.
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Damage to this nerve would keep the eye from rotation inferolaterally.
Abducens nerve (VI)
On occasion our trusty truck acts funny - very good vehicle anyhow.
Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Vagus Hypoglossal
What is the PNS?
provides links from and to the world outside our bodies. Outside the CNS.
What does the PNS consist of?
All neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord.
List the neural structures outside the body:
Efferent motor endings
***What are 3 ways to classify sensory receptors?
***List the sensory receptors that are classified by stimulus type:
What stimulus does the mechanoreceptor respond to?
Touch, mechanical force, pressure (BP), vibration, and stretch
What stimulus does a thermoreceptor respond to?
Sensitive to changes in temperature.
What stimulus does photoreceptors respond to?
Respond to light energy (retina)
What stimulus does chemoreceptors respond to?
chemicals, (ie...smell, taste, changes in blood chemistry) interstitial fluid chemistry
What stimulus do Nociceptors respond to?
Noci = harm
Potentially damaging stimuli, sensitive to pain causing stimuli (i.e. extreme heat or cold, excessive pressure, inflammatory chemicals) can also trigger subtypes of previous receptors (i.e. thermoreceptors, mechanreceptors, and chemoreceptors.)
***List the receptors that are classified by location:
Describe Interoceptors (visceroceptors):
Describe Propioceptors (one's own):
List the sensory receptors that are classified by structures:
Describe the simple receptors for general senses:
Describe the receptors for special senses:
What does Non-encapsulated mean?
(Free)- located nearly everywhere in the body, abundant in epithelia and connective tissue. Respond primarily to temp, painful stimuli and itch. (Tactile (Merkel discs), Hair follicle receptors)
What does Encapsulated mean?
(enclosed)- in a connective tissue capsule. Virtually all are mechanoreceptors but vary greatly in shape, size, and distribution in the body.
Give examples of sensory receptors that are classified by structures:
What sensory organization serves the body wall and limbs?
Receives inputs from
List the levels of neural integration in sensory systems:
***What are the 2 categories of reflexes?
***What are the 5 components of a reflex arc (neural path)?
What is a nerve?
A cordlike organ of the PNS.
What are nerves composed of?
List the layers of the connective tissue covering around nerve fibers and their descriptions:
In general, how are nerves classified throughout the PNS?
***Name the nerves that are classified according to the direction of impulse:
What is the ganglia?
How many cranial nerves are associated with the brain?
12 pairs. Only 2 pairs are attached to the forebrain. The rest are found on the brain stem.
**What nerve is a major nerve of the lumbar plexus?
The Femoral nerve L2-L4
***What are the major roots of the Brachial plexus?
Olfactory Nerve I
Sensory organ that carries impulses for smell to the brain
Optic Nerve II
Sensory organ that carries impulses for vision to the brain
Oculomotor Nerve III
Motor nerve that carries impulses to the extrinsic eye muscles which help direct the position of the eyeball. This nerve also carries impulses to the muscles that regulate the size of the pupil.
Trochlear Nerve IV
Motor nerve that carries impulses to one extrinsic eye muscle (the superior oblique muscle). This muscle helps regulate the position of the eyeball.
Trigeminal Nerve V
A mixed nerve. The sensory fibers of this nerve carry impulses for touch, temp and pain associated with the face, teeth, lips, and eyelids. The motor fibers of this nerve carry impulses to some of the mastication muscles of the face.
Abducens Nerve VI
A mixed nerve, but primarily a motor nerve. This nerve carries impulses to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is an extrinsic eye muscle which is involved in positioning the eyeball.
Facial Nerve VII
A mixed nerve.The sensory fibers of this nerve carry touch, temp, pressure and pain sensations from the face to the brain. The motor fibers of this nerve carry impulses to many of the muscles of the face and they carry impulses to the lacrimal glands.
Vestibulocochlear Nerve VIII
A sensory nerve that carries impulses for hearing and equilibrium from the ear to the brain.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve IX
A mixed nerve. The sensory fibers of this nerve carry basic sensory info and taste sensations from the pharynx and tongue to the brain. The motor fibers of this nerve carry impulses associated with swallowing to the tongue and pharynx.
Vagus Nerve X
A mixed nerve. The sensory fibers of this nerve carry impulses from the pharynx , larynx, and some internal organs to the brain. The motor fibers of this nerve carry impulses to some internal organs and to the skeletal muscles of the larynx and pharynx.
Accessory Nerve XI
A mixed nerve, but primarily a motor nerve. Carries impulses to muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and neck.
Hypoglossal Nerve XII
Primarily a motor nerve. This nerve carries impulses to the muscles that move and position the tongue.