164 notecards = 41 pages (4 cards per page)
Which is NOT a major function of the kidney?
Regulation of blood cell size
This is the formation of a new glucose molecule?
Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?
This is smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter?
The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramid is called the?
Which is the correct order of blood flow?
1) Interlobular arteries, 2) Arcuate arteries, 3) Glomerular capillaries, and 4) Arcuate veins
Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?
1) Glomerular capsule, 2) Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), 3) Loop of Henle, 4) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT), 5) Collecting duct
Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?
Proximal convoluted tubule
This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood?
This term means entry of substances into the body from the filtrate?
This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate?
This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix?
This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles?
This is when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid?
Once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule it?
Is called tubular fluid
The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb what percentage of filtered water?
Which of the following is a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?
It increases GFR
Urea recycling can cause a build up of urea in the?
Increased secretion of Hydrogen ions would result in a _______of blood ________?
Increased secretion of Aldosterone would result in a ________ of blood ________?
The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to?
An analysis of the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine is called?
Water accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine?
This is a test to measure kidney function?
This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder?
This layer of the ureter is composed of connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibers?
This lies in the anterior cornea of the trigone of the bladder?
Internal urethral orifice
Ho much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?
80% of the extracellular fluid is?
This is the largest single component of the human body?
This is produced when electrons are accepted by oxygen during cellular respiration?
This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain?
The response of the body to decreasing blood pressure will NOT cause which of the following?
This is the main factor that determines body fluid volume?
Urinary salt loss
Which of the following is used to promote Na reabsorption by the kidneys?
Which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys?
A decline in angiotensin II levels does NOT result in?
Increased Calcium reabsorption
The major hormone that regulates water loss is?
Water intoxication results from?
Dilute body fluids and a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids
Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?
Controlling osmosis between compartments, Maintaining acid-base balance, Carry electrical currents, and serve as cofactors
In extracellular fluid the most abundant cation is?
In extracellular fluid the most abundant anion is?
In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is?
In intracellular fluid the most abundant anion is?
The Na+ level in blood is controlled by?
This occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases?
This is the most abundant mineral in the body?
PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin are?
The main regulators of calcium in the blood
Most of the phosphate in a body is present as?
Calcium phosphate salt
Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all?
Ways to eliminate H+ from the body?
Metabolic reactions can produce?
This is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35?
In partial compensation?
Systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35
Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause?
Blood pH to drop
This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood HCO3 levels drop significantly (below 22 mEq/liter)?
This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values?
This is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis?
The rate of fluid intake and outtake is how much higher in an infant than in an adult?
7 times higher
The breathing rate of an infant causes?
Greater water loss from the lungs
Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system?
Excretes excess albumin molecules
Urine is eliminated through the?
Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by?
Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system, except the?
All of the following are true of the kidneys, except that they are?
Located partly within the pelvic cavity
The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the?
Which of the following is NOT an important function of the kidney?
Excretion of excess albumen
Functions of the urinary system include?
Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure, Regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions, Helping to stabilize blood pH, and Conservation of valuable nutrients
The left kidney lies ______ to the right kidney?
The position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is stabilized by?
The overlying peritoneum, Contact with adjacent visceral organs, and Supporting connective tissues
Typical renal blood flow is about ______ percent of cardiac output under resting conditions?
The renal sinus is?
An internal cavity lined by fibrous capsule
The outermost layer of the kidney is the?
The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the?
Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called?
Renal columns are?
Bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex
The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the?
Major calyces are?
Large tributaries of the renal pelvis
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
Tip of the medullary pyramid
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
Final urine enters here
The majority of glomeruli are located in the ______ of the kidney?
Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the?
A glomerulus is?
A knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle
The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the?
Proximal convoluted tubule
The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the?
Distal convoluted tubule
The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the?
Nephron loop ( Loop of Henle)
The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is?
The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of?
The ______ delivers urine to minor calyx?
The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called the _____ capillaries?
Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the?
The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the
The proper order in which blood passes through these vessels is?
4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8.
Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except?
Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include?
Hydrogen, Penicillin, Creatinine, and Potassium ions
The process of filtration occurs at?
The glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
Approximately ________liters of glomerular filtrate enters glomerular capsules each day?
The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers?
Endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.
The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the?
Substances larger than ______ do NOT pass through the filtration membrane?
The process of filtration is driven by?
Blood hydrostatic pressure
Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?
Depends on changes in the afferent arteriole, Depends on changes in the mesangial cells, and Depends on changes in the efferent arteriole
One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to?
Increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex
Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except?
Increase the glomerular filtration rate
As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except?
Stem cell movements
What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, ect.) are reabsorbed in the PCT?
Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by process of?
In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce?
Urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions
Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by?
Cotransport with Na ions
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
Relies on countercurrent multiplication, Creates high interstitial; NaCl concentration in the renal medulla, and Enables production of hypertonic urine
When the level of ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) decreases?
More urine is produced and the osmolarity of the urine decrease
The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the function of?
Both the collecting duct and the nephron loop (Loop of Henle)
Increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water
The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves?
The secretion of ADH, Aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells, A high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts, and A properly functioning nephron loop
A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is maybe due to?
Absence of ADH
_______ is an immediately life-threatening condition, however, if an individual services the incident, full recovery is often possible?
Acute renal failure
An inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is?
Which of the following is characterized as a slowly progressing disease that is irreversible?
Chronic renal failure
Urine passes, in the order given, through which of the following structures?
Collecting duct, Renal pelvis, Ureter, Bladder, and Urethra
The ureter and urinary bladder are lined by _____ epithelium?
The detrusor muscle?
Compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra
During the micturition reflex?
Stimulation of stretch receptions in the bladder wall sends impulses to the sacral cord
The condition called _______, is characterized by painful or difficult urination. This condition can be due to pathologic or benign causes?
Intracellular fluid (ICE) is found only within?
The cells of the body
The extracellular fluid (ECE) consists of the?
Plasma and lymph, Interstitial fluid, and Cerebrospinal fluid
In an adult male, the body consists of about ______ percent water?
About two-thirds of the body fluids is within cells and is termed _____ fluid?
When pure water is consumed?
Osmolarities of the two fluids compartment fall
In an adult female, the body consists of about _____ percent water?
When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained?
Osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF
A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ______ from his body?
Water, Sodium ions, Hydrogen ions, and Bicarbonate ions
Consuming a meal high is salt will?
Result in a temporary increase in blood volume
To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties should this substance NOT have in order to be effective?
Permeable to brain plasma membranes
The principal cations in cytoplasm is?
Which of the following is required as a cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis?
The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are?
Sodium and Chloride
Is secreted by the pituitary, Stimulates water intake, Stimulates water conservation by the kidneys
Is secreted in response to decreased blood volume, Promotes sodium retention in the kidneys, and Helps increase blood volume and raise blood pressure
Which of the following will stimulate thirst?
Drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx, Angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus, an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?
Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption?
Which hormone is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?
Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?
The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of?
Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by?
Stimulating thirst, Causing deceased urinary water loss, and Causing increase Na+ retention
The release of natriuretic peptides from the heart will cause the body to?
Both decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions
The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by?
Secretion of potassium into the urine is?
Increased by aldosterone, Associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts, and Reduced when the exchange pump binds H+
A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called?
The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to?
Limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by?
When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the?
Kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions and kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions
Prolonged vomiting can result in?
A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop?
A person who consumes large amount of sodium bicarbonate (Baking Soda) to settle an upset stomach risks?
Severe kidney damage (such as, glomerulonephritis) often leads to?
Which of the following description best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?
Consequence of prolonged vomiting
Hypoventilation leads to?
In response to respiratory alkalosis, the?
Kidneys retain more hydrogen ions
A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of?
Chronic respiratory acidosis
A patient on a ventilator subjected to excessive minute volume is at risk for?
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?
Consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory alkalosis?
Consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness