55 notecards = 14 pages (4 cards per page)
1) Which of the following is NOT a major function of the skeletal system?
d) mineral homeostasis
e) blood cell production
2) Which region of a long bone articulates with other bones?
) What is another name for the shaft of a long bone?
Which a layer of hyaline cartilage reduces friction between bones involved in a joint?
Which layer of hyaline cartilage allows the diaphysis to grow in length?
What is the region of long bone found between the diaphysis and the epiphysis called?
a) epiphyseal plate
b) epiphyseal line
d) diaphyseal line
e) diaphyseal plate
What is the fibrous covering on the surface of bone that is involved in thickening of the bone called?
Which of the following are considered to be bone-building cells?
What are bone-dissolving cells called?
a) osteogenic cells
e) all of these choices
Which of the following structures contain osteocytes?
a) central (Haversian) canals
b) perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
c) concentric lamellae
What are the extracellular fluid filled extensions of the lacunae called?
How are osteons in compact bone tissue aligned?
a) horizontal to the metaphysis.
b) parallel to the epiphysis.
c) parallel to the length of the diaphysis.
d) randomly between the epiphyseal plates.
e) parallel to the perforating canals.
Which of the following statements about bone remodeling is FALSE?
a) It occurs throughout your lifetime.
b) It involves bone resorption.
c) It involves bone deposition.
d) It occurs at different rates at different locations.
e) It occurs at a faster rate in compact bone than spongy bone.
Which of the following activities has the greatest effect on bone remodeling and bone deposition?
e) both c and d
18) Which of the following two minerals are needed in large quantities when bones are growing?
a) calcium and chlorine
b) magnesium and sulfur
c) calcium and phosphorous
d) manganese and sulfur
e) potassium and phosphorous
Which of the following correctly lists the order of the four zones of cartilage found within the growth plate starting at the epiphysis and extending to the diaphysis?
a) calcified cartilage, resting cartilage, proliferating cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage
b) resting cartilage, proliferating cartilage, calcified cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage
c) proliferating cartilage, resting cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage, calcified cartilage
d) resting cartilage, proliferating cartilage, hypertrophic cartilage, calcified cartilage
e) hypertrophic cartilage, calcified cartilage, proliferating cartilage, resting cartilage
During adulthood, which of the following does NOT significantly contribute to bone remodeling and growth?
a) parathyroid hormones
b) vitamin D
d) sex steroids
e) human growth hormone
Which type of fracture is considered a partial fracture and is only seen in children?
About 25% of all stress fractures involve which bone?
Bone mass reduction is promoted by which hormone?
c) human growth hormone
d) parathyroid hormone
An increase in bone growth is promoted by which hormones?
a) calcitriol and parathyroid hormone
b) calcitonin and calcitriol
c) human growth hormone and parathyroid hormone
d) parathyroid hormone and insulin
e) All of the other selections are correct.
Which of the following hormones is the most important for Ca2+ regulation?
In which region of the diagram would you find the medullary cavity?
Where in the diagram can you find red bone marrow in an adult?
Where in the diagram is the metaphysis?
What structure in the diagram is the only place on a long bone NOT covered by the periosteum?
What type of bone cell starts forming the bone matrix?
Which bone cell in the diagram below is an osteoclast?
Which bone cell in the diagram below is a mature bone cell that helps maintain bone tissue?
Which bone cell in the diagram below is an osteogenic cell?
In the diagram, where is the central (Haversian) canal?
In the diagram, where is the osteon?
In the diagram, where is the trabeculae?
In the diagram, where is the epiphyseal vein?
In the diagram, where is the nutrient artery?
In the diagram, where is the zone of hypertrophic cartilage?
In the diagram, where is the zone of resting cartilage?
Which of the following labeled structures in the diagram is a site of red blood cell production in adult bones?
Which of the following labeled structures in the diagram stores triglycerides in adult bones?
Which of the labeled structures in the diagram is formed as the result of cartilage being replaced by bone after the cessation of bone growth?
Where in the diagram is articular cartilage located?
Where in the diagram is the endosteum located?
Which of the labeled structures in the diagram are fragments of older osteons that have been partially destroyed during bone rebuilding or growth?
Which of the labeled structures in the diagram are composed of trabeculae, which are bony structures that lack osteons?
Which of the following labeled structures in the diagram are concentric lamellae?
Which of the labeled structures in the diagram are circumferential lamellae?
Where in the figure is the periosteum located?
Where in the figure is spongy bone located?
60) Which labeled structures in the figure are lamellae?
Which labeled structures in the figure are canaliculi?
Which labeled structure in the figure is an osteocyte?
Which illustration and radiograph in the figure shows a Pott’s fracture?
Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps in the repair of a bone fracture?
a) fracture hematoma, bony callus formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bone remodeling
b) fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, fracture hematoma, bone remodeling
c) bony callus formation, fracture hematoma, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bone remodeling
d) bone remodeling, fracture hematoma, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation
e) fracture hematoma, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, bone remodeling
Which of the following conditions results when the articular cartilages in a joint degenerate to the point where the bony ends of articulating bones touch?
Hypersecretion of human growth hormone during childhood results in
e) no apparent effect.