275 notecards = 69 pages (4 cards per page)
Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic and immune system?
Maintaining water homeostasis in the body
What is the major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid?
Lack of resistance is also known as?
What causes lymph from the small intestines to appear white?
Which of the following is NOT considered an organ of the immune system?
The left subclavian vain receives lymph from?
The lymph from the right foot empties into the
The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in?
Lymphatic, Immune, and Cardiovascular systems
Which of the below produces the hormone that promotes maturation of T cells?
In the thymus, where is it speculates that T cells die?
This portion of the lymph node does NOT contain any lymphatic nodules.
Which of the following is a function of the spleen?
Removes worm out blood cells
Which of these does NOT provide a physical or chemical barrier?
Which of these provides a non-specific cellular disease resistance mechanism?
These anti-microbial substances will diffuse to uninfected cells and reduce production of viral proteins
These are mainly used to kill infectious microbes and tumor cells
Natural Killer cells
Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation?
Which of the following intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair?
Which of the below do NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site?
When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are known to be?
This induces production of a specific antibody?
This can only stimulate an immune response if attached to a larger carrier molecule?
Which of the following is responsible for diversity in the immune system?
MHC and Antigen receptors
This class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells?
Antigen presenting cells
This can only become activated when bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneously receiving a costimulate?
These display CD4 in their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules?
Helper T cells
T cells secrete this toxin that is used to fragment DNA?
This class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk, and GI secretions?
This will lead to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and bursting of microbes?
Classical and Alternative complement systems
This action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis?
This is a self-responsive cell that is inactive?
This is characterized by the inability of the immune system to protect the body from a pathogen?
An acute allergic response can lead to?
A natural exposure to an infectious agent leads to?
This class of antibodies is produced after an initial exposure to antigens?
Of the following, which is considered the body's second major defense?
Lymphocytes can recognize?
In B cell receptors, the light/heavy variables regions are located?
Tips of the molecules
What is the most polymorphic molecule in the immune system?
The primary response will peak how many days after an exposure?
Which type of immunity defends against any type of invader?
This is the ability of an antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it has provoked?
This is a small hormone that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions?
Which of the following is NOT part of the upper respiratory system?
The conducting zone does NOT act to?
Clean air of debris, Conduct air into the lungs, Add water to air, and Warm air
The nose connects with the pharynx through the
Which of the following is a passage way for air, food, and water?
The opening to the pharynx from the mouth is called?
This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea?
During swallowing, which structure rises?
These are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage?
Pitch is controlled by
Tension of the vocal chords
This is located anterior to the esophagus and carriers air to the bronchi?
This is the primary gas exchange site?
Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system?
Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs?
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called?
Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?
Simple squamous epithelium
These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant?
Type II alveolar cells
This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells?
Oxygen out of blood, Carbon dioxide into blood
This is the direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs?
Oxygen into the blood, Carbon dioxide out of the blood
Exhalation begins when
Inspiratory muscles relax
This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily?
The conducting airways with the air that does NOT undergo respiratory exchange are known as the?
Respiratory dead space
This is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume?
Functional residual capacity
Which of the following is NOT a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on?
Force of contraction of diaphragm
Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?
Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions
When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________?
Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?
The lymphoid system is composed of all of the following, except?
The vena cava
The primary function of the lymphoid system is?
Defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats
The lymphocytes are most important in?
Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following, except that they?
Are smaller in diameter
Lymphocytes are produced and stored in all of the following, except
Lymphatic vessels are located in almost all portions of the body, except the?
Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the?
The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the?
Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with
The merging of ______forms the right lymphatic duct?
The right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
In general, lymphocytes?
Spend most of their time in lymphoid tissue, Have relatively long life spans, and Have one nucleus
Respond to antigens
Lymphocyte production involves?
Bone marrow, Thymus tissue, and Peripheral lymphoid tissues
_______are large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx?
________are clusters of lymphoid nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine?
Lymph nodes do all of the following, except that they?
Remove excess nutrients from the lymph
Lymphoid organs differ from lymphoid tissues in what way?
They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphoid tissues are not.
The medulla of a lymph node contains _______lymphocytes and plasma cells?
The cell that dominates the deep cortical region of a lymph node is the _______cell?
Lymph nodes range in diameter from?
1mm to 25mm
Dividing lymphocytes can be found in the ________ of the lymphoid nodule.
Leslie has a bad sore throat, and the lymph glands in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that?
The affected lymph glands contain an increased number of lymphocytes.
All of the following are true of the thymus gland, except that it?
Activates B cells
Stem cells that will form T cells develop in the?
If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of?
Lymphocytes may be found in which of the following tissues or organs?
Tonsils, Spleen, Lymph nodes, and Thymus
Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as?
The largest single collection of lymphoid tissue in the adult body is located in the?
Which class of leukocytes is particularly abundant in the red pulp of the spleen?
Free and Fixed macrophages
The body's nonspecific defenses include all of the following, except?
B and T cells
Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except?
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the?
Various types of macrophages are derived from?
Nonspecific defenses include?
Phagocytic cells, Physical barriers, Inflammation, and Interferons
Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include?
Mucus, Sebaceous glands, Epithelia, and Epidermal layers
The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.
The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except?
Inhibition of the immune response
The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the complement protein binds to?
An antibody attached to an antigen
Plasma contains ________ special complement proteins that form the complement system.
Inflammation produces localized?
Swelling, Heat, Pain, and Redness
Fever is the maintenance of body temperature greater than?
37.2°C or 99°F.
An inflammatory response is triggered when?
Mast cells release histamine and heparin
The release of endogenous pyrogen (or interleukin-1) by active macrophages would?
Produce a fever
Histamine increases blood flow and vascular permeability. This would account for all of the following changes that occur during inflammation, except?
Chemotaxis of phagocytes
A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John?
Is running a fever
Characteristics of specific defenses include?
Versatility, Tolerance, Memory, and Specificity
Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by?
Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.
Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.
Naturally acquired active
Immunity that results from antibodies that pass the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity.
Naturally acquired passive
In passive immunity, the?
Body receives antibodies produced by other humans or the body receives antibodies produced by an animals.
The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to?
Activate T cells, Display antigen fragments, and Process antigens
Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is NOT true?
When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a ________ cell.
Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?
Lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
Before specific defenses are activated, most antigens must?
Depolarize the lymphocyte
Newborns gain their immunity initially from?
Antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother
The cells responsible for antibody-mediated immunity are the ________ cells.
Specific defenses depend on the activities of?
The cells directly responsible for cell-mediated immunity are the ________ cells.
Class II MHC proteins are present in the plasma membrane only?
In antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes
In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of?
When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a ________ cell.
Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.
Suppressor T cells act to
Inhibit T and B cell activities
Cytotoxic T cells can attack target cells with which of these chemical weapons?
Activates genes that trigger apoptosis
T cells and B cells can be activated only by
Exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane
The cells responsible for the production of circulating immunoglobulins are ________ cells.
Cells that help regulate the antibody-mediated immune response are ________ cells
B cells are primarily activated by the activities of?
Helper T cells
Helper T cells do all of the following, except?
Destroy target cells using perforins
The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their?
Heavy-chain constant segments
Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are?
Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are?
Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may activate antibody production are?
Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are?
Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as saliva and tears are?
During a primary humoral response to antigens, all of the following occur, except?
Neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances.
All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity, except that it?
Weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.
All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity, except that?
It is delayed by the memory cell stage.
The most abundant type of antibody is?
In IgG, the antigen binding site is formed by?
The variable segment of the light chain + the variable segment of the heavy chain.
________ is the class of antibody first secreted in response to a new antigen.
If the disulfide bonds in IgG were broken, how many protein chains would be set free?
Each IgG has ________ binding site(s) for attachment to antigenic determinants.
During a primary immune response, the?
IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.
In a routine examination, some blood is taken and analyzed. The results show a high IgM titer for the mumps virus but a low IgG anti-mumps titer. This would indicate the person?
Was recently infected with mumps.
The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in?
Neutralization of the antigen, Agglutination or precipitation, Complement activation and opsonization
Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are?
Destruction of antigens or cell lysis can be caused by all of the following except by?
Helper T cells
Are directed against the body's own antigens
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects ________ cells.
Infection with the HIV virus occurs through?
Intimate contact with an infected person's body fluids.
Which of the following organs is not part of the lower respiratory system?
Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the?
Upper respiratory tract
Large airborne particles are filtered by?
The respiratory defense system
Components of the upper respiratory system include all of the following, except the?
The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
Which of the following systems is (are) responsible for gas exchange?
The trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli all make up the?
Lower respiratory tract
A mucosa consists of?
Both an epithelium and an underlying layer of areolar tissue
________ is the most common lethal inherited disease affecting individuals of Northern European descent.
Create turbulence in the air to trap particulate matter in mucus
Functions of the nasal cavity include which of the following?
Filtering the air, Warming the air, Humidifying the air, and Trapping airborne particles
The openings to the nostrils are the?
The portion of the nasal cavity contained within the flexible tissues of the external nose is the?
The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the?
The auditory tubes open into the?
The palatine tonsils lie in the walls of the?
The ________ is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the?
The nasopharynx is divided from the rest of the pharynx by the?
The nasal cavities are divided from one another by the?
________ generally causes a rapid increase in the rate of mucus production in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Exposure to noxious stimuli, Exposure to unpleasant stimuli, Exposure to allergens, and Exposure to debris or pathogens
Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because?
it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air
Which of the following is NOT a function of the nasal mucosa?
Dehumidify the incoming air
The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the?
Which of the following is NOT true about the pharynx?
Shared by the integumentary and respiratory systems
The larynx contains ________ cartilages.
Three unpaired, Three paired, and A total of nine
The glottis is?
The opening to the larynx
The vocal folds are located within the?
The elastic cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the?
The largest shield-shaped cartilage of the larynx is the _______cartilage.
The ring-shaped cartilage just inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the _______cartilage.
The paired cartilages that articulate with the superior border of the cricoid cartilage are the ________ cartilages.
A pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that function in sound production are the?
Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces?
Tension on the vocal cords is regulated by the?
Movement of the arytenoid cartilages and contraction of laryngeal muscles
The laryngeal cartilage composed of elastic cartilage that prevents entry of solids or liquids into the laryngopharynx when swallowing is the?
Contraction of the laryngeal muscles can?
Move the arytenoid cartilages, Close the glottis, and Stretch the vocal folds
During swallowing, the?
Solids and liquids are forces into the esophagus, Larynx is elevated, and Epiglottis folds back over the glottis
Which of the following statements about the trachea is false?
Is reinforced with D-shaped cartilages
The airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tree is the?
Secondary bronchi supply air to the?
Lobes of the lungs
What branches from the trachea?
Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problems result from?
Inability of the respiratory defense mechanism to transport mucus and production of thick secretions that are difficult to transport only.
The adult human trachea is about ________ in diameter and contains ________ tracheal cartilages.
Which of these descriptions best matches the term bronchiolar smooth muscle?
Contraction increases airway resistance
The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because?
Large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing.
During a choking episode, most foreign objects are more likely to become lodged in the ________ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
Primary bronchi are to ________ as secondary bronchi are to ________.
Extrapulmonary bronchi; Intrapulmonary bronchi
The right lung is to ________ as the left lung is to ________.
Three lobes; Two lobes
Which respiratory organ has a cardiac notch?
The following is a list of some airways.
4)Primary bronchus, 1)Secondary bronchus, 2)Bronchioles, 7)Terminal bronchiole, 5)Respiratory bronchiole, 3)Alveolar ducts, and 6)Alveoli
The interlobular septa divide the lungs into?
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are?
The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of?
Simple squamous epithelium.
Collectively, the layers through which the respiratory gases diffuse are known as the?
Boyle's law states that gas volume is?
Inversely proportional to pressure.
Pulmonary ventilation refers to the?
Movement of air into and out of the lungs.
The function of pulmonary ventilation is to?
Maintain adequate alveolar ventilation
The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is?
Boyle's Law of Gases states that?
If the volume goes up, the pressure goes down
When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that?
They are equal
Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
Sternocleidomastoid, Pectoralis minor, Scalenes. and Serratus anterior
Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).
When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,
The volume of the thorax increases
Which of these descriptions best matches the term external intercostal?
Primary muscle of inspiration
________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately?
95 mm Hg
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is approximately?
45 mm Hg
________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.
Inspiratory reserve volume
In quite breathing?
Inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive
If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's?
Alveolar ventilation refers to the?
Amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute
Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will?
Decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
Which of the following can be calculated if the tidal volume and respiratory rate are known?
Respiratory minute volume
Henry's law states that?
The volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas.
Dalton's law states that?
In a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressure of the gases in the mixture.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately?
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately?
The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is?
Which of the following is greatest?
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood
Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the?
Diameter of an alveolus
External respiration involves the?
Diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood
Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to?
Either increase the partial pressure of oxygen or decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
At a PO2 of 70 mm Hg and normal temperature and pH, hemoglobin is ________ percent saturated with oxygen.
More than 90
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is?
Bound to hemoglobin
Each 100mL of blood leaving the alveolar capillaries carries away roughly ______mL of oxygen.
Under quite conditions, blood returning to the heart retains about ______of its oxygen content when it leaves the lungs.
Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of?
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?
For maximum loading of hemoglobin with oxygen at the lungs, the?
PCO2 should be low
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as?
Is in RBCs, Is an enzyme, Can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma, and Can convert carbon dioxide into carbonic acid
The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is?
Respiratory distress syndrome
An acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways
The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called?
A patient with a connective tissue disease experiences increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Over a period of time you would expect to observe?
Increased thickness of the right ventricular wall
In emphysema, which of these occur?
Alveoli collapse, Compliance increases, and Elevated PCO2 in the blood
The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the _______center?
Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the _______center?
The pneumotaxic center of the pons?
Modifies the rate and depth of breathing
Higher brain centers that alter the activity of the respiratory centers include all of the following, except?
The precentral motor gyrus
The apneustic centers of the pons?
Inhibits the pneumotaxic center
Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in?
More intense inhalation
If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally?
A person would stop breathing
The pneumotaxic center?
Both is in the pons and inhibits the apneustic center
Pneumotaxic centers in the pons?
Inhibits the apneustic centers, Promote passive or active exhalation, Recieves input from the hypothalamus and cerebrum, and Modify respiratory rate and depth
The most important chemical regulator of respiration is?
A 10% increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will?
Increase the rate of breathing
Blocking afferent action potentials from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies would interfere with the brain's ability to regulate breathing in response to?
Changes in PCO2
The term hypercapnia refers to?
The inflation reflex?
Protects the lungs from damage due to over-inflation.
All of the following provide chemoreceptor input to the respiratory centers of the medulla oblongata, except the?
Which of these age-based changes is false?
Vital capacity increases.