76 notecards = 19 pages (4 cards per page)
What causes addisons disease?
deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone
what causes acromegaly?
Too much GH after epiphyseal plates have closed (adults)
What causes Diabetes mellitus
Hyposecretion of insulin
What causes Pituitary dwarfism
GH deficiency in children
What causes Graves' disease
Abnormal antibodies towards thyroid produced. Increases TH release.
What causes Cushing's disease
tumor/excess growth of pituitary gland. increased ACTH production
What causes Myxedema
Full blown hyperthyroid syndrome
What causes cretinism?
severe hypothyroid in infants
The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are _____
PTH and calcitonin
The hormones that regulate blood sugar levels are______ and _____.
Insulin and glucagon
The _________ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin
The _________ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce glucagon
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of ________.
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the ________.
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
Thyroid hormone enters target cells in a manner similar to ________ .
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
skeletal muscle and bone
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.
stimulating osteoclasts to release calcium into the blood
Leptin is secreted by ________.
adipose cells (fat cells)
What is the function of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males?
Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs is _____.
1. The hormone regulating electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is____
1. Name the steroid-based hormones
1. Estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, aldosterone, etc.
Know structural and functional characteristics of WBCs
eosinophils: granulocyte, bilobed nucleus. attacks parasitic worms.
What are Eicosanoids, give examples
paracrines, leukotrienes, prostaglandins
Understand structural and functional characteristics of hypophysis
function: releases hormones that stimulate other glands to release hormones. hypophyseal tract, portal system feeds adenophyseal side.
1. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.
1. hypophyseal portal system
1. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.
1. its a hormone storage area.
1. LH is also referred to as a _______.
1. ADH secretion will increase when blood pressure______.
What characteristics are associated with hyposecretion of thyroid hormones?
Know the functions of the following hormones
a. reduced blood calcium
Describe the following blood disorders
a. cancerous condition of WBC's
1. Know the chemical components of the Hemoglobin molecule
1. Iron, heme, globin, 2 alpha and beta chains.
1. Name the organs regulating RBC production
1. liver, kidney.
1. The parent cell for all formed elements of blood is _____.
1. How would an increased in amount of heparin affect blood clothing?
1. it would stop the clot because heparin is an anticoagulant.
1. In what situations might Rh incompatibility develop?
1. Rh - mom and Rh + fetus
1. Know all different types of arteries and give example of location which they serve
1. elastic, muscular, arterioles. elastic is found close to the heart, muscular is found throughout the body and arterioles serve capillary beds.
Explain why the erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude.
because your body needs more O2 so it produces more RBC's
1. Know the correct developmental sequence of an RBC
1. proerythroblast, late erb, normoblast, reticulocyte.
1. The immediate response to blood vessel injury is ________.
1. Vascular spasm
1. Know the protective functions of blood
1. A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________anemia.
1. Which organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
1. Which blood type is called the universal donor?
1. Name the normal plasma proteins
1. albumins, fibrinogens, globulins
1. Know the location of followings: Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
1. outer layer, middle layer, inner layer
1. Know the function and location for the followings; Pulmonary valves, Aortic valve, Mitral valve, and Tricuspid valve
1. The semilunar valves are (open /close) when ventricles are in diastole.
1. Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block.
1. AV node
1. What happens to the heart rate if the vagal nerves to the heart were cut?
1. increases by 25 beats
1. The three main factors influencing blood pressure are
1. cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume.
1. The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ____.
1. hepatic portal circulation
1. The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.
1. terminal arterioles.
1. The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to________.
1. changes in arterial pressure.
1. The patency of the trachea is due to ________.
1. Cartilaginous C rings
1. Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
1. decreasing surface tension by interfering with cohesiveness of H2O molecules
110. The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
1. inspiratory reserve.
1. Know role of the pleura
1. Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ______.
1. ciliated mucus lining the nose.
1. The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of _______ ions
124. Know the pathogenic agent for the followings: Chlamydia, Genital warts, Syphilis, Genital herpes, Gonorrhea
1. OK. make a list
125. Know the definition of the followings:
a.To cause (spermatozoa) to undergo the physical changes needed to penetrate and fertilize an egg.
1. The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the ________week.
1. During the first trimester ________ produces Estrogen and Progesterone.
1. ovary (corpus luteum).
134. The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
1. The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
1. lamina propria
1. Name the components of the renal corpuscle
1. glomerulus and bowmans capsule.
1. Name the components of The filtration membrane includes
1. glomerular endothelium, podocytes, fused basement membrane
1. Name The functions of angiotensin II.
1. constrict arterioles and increase BP
1. The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
1. glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
1. Aldosterone regulated ______ and ______ in an antagonistic fashion.
1. sodium and potassium
1. Know the definition of the following
1. c, f, b, a, e, d. (nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra.