30 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
What is the function that surrounds the kidneys in life?
in a living person, fat deposits hold the kidneys in place against the muscles of posterior trunk wall.
1. maintains water and electrolyte balance of blood
1. transports urine to body exterior
1. produces urine
1. shorter in females than males
1. portion of kidney containing mostly collecting ducts
1. basinlike area of kidney, continuous with the ureter
1. renal pelvis
1. area of cortex like tissue running between medullary pyramids
1. renal column
1. primary site of tubular reabsorption
1. proximal convoluted tubule
1. its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane
1. how does its high pressure condition aid its function of filtrate formation?
1. the high hydrostatic pressure forces out fluid and blood components smaller than proteins from the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule.
1. Trace a drop of blood from when it enters the kidney in renal artery to when it leaves through the renal vein
1. renal artery - segmental artery- lobar artery- interlobar artery- arcuate artery- interlobular artery- afferent arterioles- glomerulus- peritubular capillary- interlobular vein- arcuate vein- interlobar vein- renal vein
Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsule to the urethra.
1. glomerular capsule- proximal convoluted tubule- loop of henle- distal convoluted tubule- collecting duct- renal cortex- medullary pyramid- calyces- renal pelvis- ureter- urinary bladder- urethra
1. what is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24 hour period?
1. 1.0 - 1.8 Litres
1. list two substances that are routinely found in filtrate but not in urine.
1. glucose, amino acids
1. blood in urine
1. list two principal functions of the testes:
1. sperm and testosterone production
1. duct conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord.
1. vas deferens
1. location of testis in adult males
1. empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra
1. prostate gland
1. describe the composition of semen and name all structures contributing to its formation
1. semen is composed of sperm and seminal fluid. the sperm are produced int he testis and the seminal fluid is produced by the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland.
1. of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?
1. helps neutralise the acid environment of the female vagina, protecting the sperm, and enhancing their motility.
1. trace pathway of sperm from testes to urethra.
1. seminiferous tubule - rete testis- epididymis- ductus deferens
1. site of fetal development.
1. becomes erectile during sexual excitement
1. do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of female?
1. possible because there is no actual contat between the female gonad and uterine tube
1. Name the male stucture that is homologous to the femal stuctures below"
1. the testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. each of these lobes contains one to fou ______ _____ ____ ____, which converge on a tubular region of the testis called the ______________________.
1. highly coiled seminiferous tubules; rete testis at the mediastinum of the testis.
1. What is a follicle?
1. sac like structures within which the femal gametes begin their development.