84 notecards = 21 pages (4 cards per page)
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Catabolism is to anabolism as ________ is to ________.
A) exergonic; spontaneous
B) exergonic; endergonic
C) free energy; entropy
D) work; energy
Most cells cannot harness heat to perform work because
A) heat does not involved a transfer of energy
B) cells do not have much thermal energy; they are relatively cool
C) temperature is usually uniform throughout a cell
D) heat can never be used to do work
Which of the following metabolic processes can occur without net flux of energy from some other process?
A) ADP + Pi --> ATP + H2O
B) C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O
C) 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
D) Amino acids --> proteins
In an enzyme is solution is saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain a faster yield of products is to
A) add more enzyme
B) heat the solution to 90°C
C) add more substrate
D) add a noncompetitive inhibitor
Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because
A) they are able to maintain a lower internal temperature
B) high temperature make catalysis unnecessary
C) their enzymes have high optimal temperatures
D) their enzymes are completely insensitive to temperature
In an enzyme is added to a solution where its substrate and product are in equilibrium, what will occur?
A) addition substrate will be formed
B) the reaction will change from endergonic to exergonic
C) the free energy of the system will change
D) nothing; the reaction will stay at equilibrium
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking
down large molecules into smaller ones?
Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways?
Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy
within a cell?
Which of the following statements is true concerning catabolic
Which of the following is the most correct interpretation of the
How do cells use the ATP cycle shown in the figure?
Which of the following is a statement of the first law of
For living organisms, which of the following is an important
consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
Living organisms increase in complexity as they grow, resulting in a
decrease in the entropy of an organism. How does this relate to the
second law of thermodynamics?
Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the
second law of thermodynamics?
Which of the following statements is representative of the second law
Biological evolution of life on Earth, from simple prokaryote-like
cells to large, multicellar eukaryotic organisms,
Which of the following shows the correct changes in thermodynamic
properties for a chemical reaction in which amino acids are linked to
form a protein?
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical
reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the
Whenever energy is transformed, there is always an increase in the
The mathematical expression for the change in free energy of a system
is ΔG =ΔH - TΔS. Which of the following is (are) correct?
Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
Chemical equilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. Which of the
following could be an example of a reaction at chemical equilibrium in
For the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + Pi, the free energy change is -7.3
kcal/mol under standard conditions (1 M concentration of both
reactants and products). In the cellular environment, however, the
free energy change is about -13 kcal/mol. What can we conclude about
the free energy change for the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi under
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic
A system at chemical equilibrium
Which of the following best describes enthalpy (H)?
Which of the following is the smallest closed system?
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin Cycle with
A) light energy
B) CO2 and ATP
C) H2O and NADPH
D) ATP and NADPH
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
A) NADPH --> O2 --> CO2
B) H2O --> NADPH --> Calvin Cycle
C) H2O --> photosystem I --> photosystem II
D) NADPH --> electron transport chain --> O2
How is photosynthesis similar to C4 plants and CAM plants?
A) In both cases, only photosynthesis I is used
B) Both types of plants make sugar without the Calvin Cycle
C) In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially
D) Both types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
A) Autotrophs, but not necessarily heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic
B) Only heterotrophs require chemical compounds from the environment
C) Cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs
D) Only heterotrophs have mitochondria
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?
A) carbon fixation
B) oxidation of NADPH
C) release of oxygen
D) regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to
A) substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis
B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration
C) carbon fixation
D) reduction of NADP+
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
A) creation of pH gradient by pumping protons across the thylakoid membrane
B) reduction of NADP+ molecules
C) removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
D) ATP synthesis
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of
photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
Photosynthesis is not responsible for
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
Which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of
In a cyanobacterium, the reactions that produce NADPH occur in
The reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O₂) take place in
In C₃ photosynthesis, the reactions that require ATP take place in
In a plant leaf, the reactions that produce NADH occur in
Reactions that require CO₂ take place in
The NADPH required for the Calvin cycle comes from
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH
consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of
ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra
ATP molecules come from?
Some photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., purple sulfur bacteria) have only
photosystem I, whereas others (e.g., cyanobacteria) have both
photosystem I and photosystem II. Which of the following might this
In thylakoids, protons travel through ATP synthase from the thylakoid
space to the stroma. Therefore, the catalytic "knobs" of ATP
synthase would be located
Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack
photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the
lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be
In autotrophic bacteria, where are the enzymes located that can carry
on carbon fixation (reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate)?
Phosphofructokinase is an important control enzyme in the regulation
of cellular respiration. Which of the following statements correctly
describes phosphofructokinase activity?
Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the
conversion of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, an
early step of glycolysis. In the presence of oxygen, an increase in
the amount of ATP in a cell would be expected to
High levels of citric acid inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase, a
key enzyme in glycolysis. Citric acid binds to the enzyme at a
different location from the active site. This is an example of
In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about five
times the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose must
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what
percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products
of glycolysis are
n glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a
During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which
What carbon sources can yeast cells metabolize to make ATP from ADP
under anaerobic conditions?
The body tissue that consists largely of material located outside of cells is
A) epithelial tissue
B) connective tissue
C) muscle tissue
D) nervous tissue
Which of the following would increase the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment?
A) feathers of fur
C) wind blowing across the body surface
D) countercurrent heat exchanger
Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ______ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ______ would have the highest expenditure per unit mass.
A) elephant; mouse
B) elephant; human
C) mouse; snake
D) penguin; mouse
Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has
A) less surface area
B) less surface area per unit of volume
C) the same surface area-to-volume ratio
D) a smaller cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio
An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs
A) if the animal is an endotherm, which must always take in more energy because of its high metabolic rate
B) if it is actively forging for food
C) if it is growing and increasing its mass
D) never; homeostasis makes these energy and material budgets always balance
You are studying a large tropical reptile that has a high and relatively stable body temperature. How would you determine whether this animal is an endotherm or an ectotherm?
A) You know form its high and stable body temperature that it must be an endotherm
B) You subject this reptile to various temperatures in the lab to find that its body temperature and metabolic rate change with the ambient temperature. You conclude that it is an ectotherm
C) You note that tis environment has a high and stable temperature. Because its body temperature matches the environmental temperature, you can conclude that it is an ectotherm.
D) You measure the metabolic rate of the reptile, and because it is higher than that of a related species that lives in temperate forests, you conclude that this reptile is an endotherm and its relative is an ectotherm
Which of the following animals uses the largest percentage of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?
A) a marine jelly (an invertebrate)
B) a snake in a temperate forest
C) a desert insect
D) a desert bird
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the
A) oxidation of glucose and other organic compounds
B) flow of electrons down the electron transport chain
C) H+ concentration gradient across the membran holding ATP synthase
D) transfer of phosphate to ADP
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
A) the citric acid cycle
B) the electron transport chain
D) reduction of pyruvate to lactate
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
A) are the source of energy driving prokaryotic ATP synthesis
B) provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient
C) reduce carbon atoms to carbon dioxide
D) are coupled via phosphorylated intermediates to endergonic processes
What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction?
Pyruvate + NADH + H+ --> Lactate + NAD+
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
B) the citric acid cycle
C) lactate fermentation
D) electron transport
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
A) the pH of the matrix increases
B) ATP synthase pumps protons by active transport
C) the electrons gain free energy
D) NAD+ is oxidized
Brown fat cells produce a protein called thermogenin in their
mitochondrial inner membrane. Thermogenin is a channel for facilitated
transport of protons across the membrane. What will occur in the brown
fat cells when they produce thermogenin?
1) When the temperature of the outside air exceeds their internal
body temperature, jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will
Humans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the process of
An overheated and sick dog in a hot environment will have an impaired
thermoregulatory response when its