1. movement of air into and out of the lungs so the gases there are continuously changed and refreshed (breathing)
2. movement of o2 from the lungs to the blood and of co2 from blood to lungs
1. Pulmonary respiration
2. external respiration
1. transport of o2 from the lungs to tissue cells of body, and of co2 from tissue cells to lungs. this transport is accomplished by cardiovascular system using blood as transporting fluid
2. movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood.
1. transport of respiratory gases
2. internal respiration
1. whats cellular respiration?
2. what serves as a resonating chamber for speech and houses olfactory receptors?
1. the actual use of o2 and production of co2 by tissue cells
1. what organs constitute the resp. system?
2. what two zones do the respiratory system include?
3. conductive zones allow for ________ while respiratory zone allows for _______
1. nose, pharynx, larynx, lungs, trachea, etc.
2. conucting zone and respiratory zone.
3. rigid conduits for air to travel; gas exchange
1.what kind of epithelium is the respiratory mucosa? where is it found and what does it secrete?
2. what do sinuses do?
3. whats rhinitis?
1. pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells. nose. secretes lysozyme and defensins
2. lighten the skull and moisten and warm air.
3. inflamm. of nasal mucosa, excessive mucus, nasal congestion.
1. what are the three divisions of the pharynx?
2. which of these three is strictly an air passageway?
1. nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx.
1. the pharyngeal tonsils are located in which division of pharynx?
2. the lingual and palatine tonsils are located in which division of pharynx?
1. what bone does the larynx attach to?
2. which cartilages come in pairs?
3. what is the opening between the vocal fold called?
2. arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate.
1. do vestibular folds have any part in sound production?
2. what part of the respiratory tract is shared with the GI?
3. what is the function of the epiglottis?
2. laryngopharynx, oropharynx.
3. separates air and food way. covers glottis.
1. what is the role of the true vocal cords?
2. what is the role of false vocal cords?
3. the true vocal cords are attached to these cartilages:
1. voice production
2. protection of true vocal cords
3. thyroid, arytenoid
1. name the three layers of the trachea
2. what does the trachea divide into?
3. what is the outermost layer and what is it made of?
1. mucosa, submucosa, adventitia
2. divides into the two main bronchi.
3. adventitia, c shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.
1. what is the function of the cartilaginous rings in the trachea wall (adventitia)?
2. how do left and right primary bronchi differ?
1, to maintain an opening for air.
2. left is longer, narrower, has greater angle, right is shorter, more vertical.
1. why is the back of the trachea not reinforced by the hyaline cartilage?
2. what is the place where the trachea branches off called?
1. its not reinforced so that when we swallow food, the trachealis muscle can expand to let food pass.
1. how many times do air passages undergo orders of branching into the lungs?
2. the first bronchial division from the trachea is called the _____ bronchi (left and right).
3. which side (left or right) usually gets more stuff stuck in it (food etc.)?
1. 23 times
3. the right side.
1. once the left and right bronchi get inside the lung, they divide further into ______ (lobar) bronchi).
2. how many lobar bronchi are on the right? the left?
3. what do the lobar bronchi subdivide into? whats another name for it?
2. 3 on right. two on left.
3. teritary bronchi; segmental
1. what are passages in the lung smaller than 1mm diameter called?
2. the cartilage rings follow all the way down until they reach the bronchioles where they ______
3. what changes in epithelium happen to bronchioles?
3. they turn from pseudo stratified into cuboidal.
1. what happens to the amount of smooth muscle in bronchioles as they get smaller and smaller?
2. how many million alveoli are there?
3. what accounts for most of the lungs volume?
1. it increases
1. how many secondary bronchi support the left lung? the right? lobar?
2. the walls of alveoli are composed of a single layer of what kind of epithelium? what are these epithelial cells called?
1. two; three; three
2. squamous; type I
1. what kind of cells are scattered among the type I squamous cells in alveoli? what kind of epithelial cells?
2. what do type II cuboidal cells do?
3. type I and II are what kind of cells?
1. Type II. theyre cuboidal.
2. secrete surfactant
1. what do macrophages in the alveoli do?
2. what is the hilum?
3. what is costal surface?
1. they keep the area sterile
2. an indentation that contains pulmonary and systemic blood vessels.
3. anterior, lateral, and posterior surfaces in contact with the ribs. .
1. what is the cardiac notch and which lung is it located in?
2. how many lobes are in each lung?
3. how many brachiopulmonary segments in each lung?
1. cavity that accomodates the heart. located in left lung
2. 3 in right, 2 in left.
1. how many circulations supply the lungs? what are their names?
2. what do the pulmonary arteries supply?
3. bronchial arteries?
1. 2; pulmonary, bronchole.
2. systemic venous blood to lungs to be supplied with o2.
3. provide systemic blood to lung tissue.
1. which tissues do the bronchial arteries not supply?
2.what is pleurisy? dry pleurisy?
1. the alveoli, the pulmonary circulation does that.
2. inflammation of the pleurae (coating of lungs); dry pleurisy is reduced amount of pleural fluid resulting in pain with each breath.
1. pleural effusion
3. whats a pneumothorax?
1. fluid in pleural cavity due to right heart failure
2. lung collapse due to an opening such as chest wound. air entering pleural cavity.
3. presence of air in the intrapleural space
WHAT DID YOU LEARN
1. name the pleura of the lung. what is their function?
2. what is the function of serous fluid within the pleural cavity?
3. what are the two major blood flow to and from the lung?
1. parietal and visceral. to secure and maintain size.
2. to provide a friction free environment
3. pulmonary and bronchial .
1. is pressure in lung inversely or directly related to volume?
2. whats pressure gradient?
2. pressure moves from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration
1. at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume.
2. explain how volume changes lead to pressure changes.
1. boyles law.
2. if there is more volume, gas fills the space, thus leaving more room between gas particles making pressure lower. if volume gets smaller, there is less space between gases and the pressure increases
1. what is the usual volume of air that enters the lungs during quiet
2. how is atmospheric pressure related to respiratory pressure?
1. 500 mL
2. it is directly related. so if atmostpheric pressure goes up, respiratory pressure goes down and vice versa.
1. what is intrapulmonary pressure? what will it always equalise with?
2. intrapleural pressure is always _______ (more/less) than intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure.
1. pressure in the alveoli. always equalises with atmospheric pressure
1. how is lymphatic system involved with pressure?
2. what happens when we inhale?
1. it helps drain excess pleural fluid. otherwise it would accumulate and increase pressure.
2. the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract and the rib cage rises, lungs are stretched as intrapulmonary volume increases. this drops the intrapulmonary pressure below that of atmosphere, which sets the lungs up for exhalation.
1. what three muscles can help inspiration of air?
2. what happens during exhalation?
1. scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, and pectoralis major.
2. inpiratory muscles relax, as air goes out of lungs, the lungs recoil (because theyre elastic and like to be as small as possible, and can be small with no air in them)
WHAT DID YOU LEARN?
1. during expiration, thoracic volume changes in what way?
2. how does this affect ppul?
1. what is airway resistance?
2. what is surface tension?
1. gas flow decreases as resistance increases.
2. molecules of liquid are more attracted to each other than gas. for this reason, the liquid molecules draw closer to each other, avoiding contact with gases, and resist any force that tends to increase their surface area.
1. what is surfactant and what is its role in surface tension?
1. a detergent like complex made by typeII alveolar cells. it decreases the cohesiveness of water molecules on alveoli allowing less energy to be used to overcome the forcces to expand the lungs. if water was by itself, the alveoli would collapse in between each breath.
1. what is lung compliance?
2. stimulation by parasympathetic nervous system affects the lungs because ________
3. stimulation by sns affects lungs because ________.
1. the stretchiness and distensibility of the lung. the more a lung expands for given rise in transpulmonary pressure, the greater the lung compliance.
2. causes constricltion of broncholes
3. it dilates
1. what is infant respiratory distress syndrome caused by?
2. name a few factors that diminish lung compliance
1. lack of surfactant
2. scar tissue or fibrosis, blockage, reduced surfactant, decreased flexibility of thoracic cage.
1. what are the four respiratory volumes?
2. the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration (IRV+TV)
1. inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, total lung capacity.
1. the amount of air remaining in lungs after a tidal expiration (RV+ERV)
2. the total amount of exchangeable air (TV+IRV+TRV)
3. sum of all lung volumes ( approximately 6000 mL in males)
1. fictional residual capacity
2. vital capacity
3. total lung capacity
1. what is tidal volume?
2. that is inspiratory reserve volume?
3. expiratory reserve volume
1. the 500 ml of air that moves in or out of the lungs with normal breathing.
2. the amount of air that can be inspired forcible beyond tidal volume
3. amount of air that can be evacuate from lungs after a tidal expiration.
1. even after the most strenuous expiration, the 1200 or so ml of air left in volume is residual volume. this helps to keep alveoli open and prevent lungs from collapsing.
1. what is anatomical dead space? alveolar dead space? what is total dead space?
1. the volume of conducting zone resp. passages. they have no role in gas exchange. alveolar dead space is alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction. total dead space is alveolar dead space and anatomical dead space
1. gas exchange between alveoli and blood
2. gas exchange between blood and body cells and tissues
3. what are both of these mechanisms?
1. external respiration
2. internal respiration
3. diffusion mechanism
1. what is daltons law.
2. what is the % of oxygen in the volume of atmospheric air?
1. total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. in lamens terms, the partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture
1. what is the atmospheric pressure at sea level? if oxygen is 21% of this number, what is its partial pressure in mm?
2. describe henrys law
1. 760. 159.5 (.21x760)
2. when a portion of gas is in contact with a liquid, it will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure. the amount of gas that will dissolve also depends on its solubility.
1. which gas is most soluble?
2. how soluble is o2 compared to co2?
3. which gas is practically insoluble in plasma?
2. it is 1/20th as soluble as CO2
1. what is the atmosphere mostly made up of? what do alveoli contain?
2. what things affect the movement of oxygen and co2 across the respiratory membrane (external resp)?
1. atmosphere is mostly o2 and nitrogen, alveoli is mostly co2 and water vapor.
2. partial pressure gradients, gas solubility, membrane thickness, surface area.
1. what is the partial pressure oxygen of venous blood? alveoli?
2. why is this steep gradient good?
1. 40 mmHg; 104 mmHg
2. it allows o2 partial pressures to rapidly reach equalibrium and thus blood can move three times as quickly through the pulmonary capillary and still be adequately oxygenised.
1. why is a greater surface area of respiratory membrane desireable ?
2. what happens to the respiratory membrane if the lungs become waterlogged and edematous?
3. name the factors influencing the movement of o2 and co2 across the respiratory membrane
1. the greater the surface area, the more gas can diffuse across it in a given time period.
2. it thickens
3. pressure gradient, membrane thickness, solubility and surface area.
1. what is ventilation? perfusion? ventilation perfusion?
2.describe how this ventilation and perfusion work
1. the amount of gas reaching the alveoli; the blood flow past alveoli; both of those added together
2. ventilation and perfusion must match. if ventilation is low or inadequate, the terminal arterioles constrict and blood is redirected to respiratory areas where ventilation is high and oxygen pickup can be more efficient. if ventilation is maximal (higher), the pulmonary arteries dilate, increasing blood flow into those areas to pick up a lot of o2.
1. what two ways is molecular o2 carried?
2. what is oxyhemoglobin and how is it written?
3. what is deoxyhemoglobin and how is it written?
1. bound to hemoglobin or dissolved in plasma.
2. hemoglobin with o2 attached to its irons. written as HbO2.
3. hemoglobin that has released o2 (reduced hemoglobin). written as HHB
1. what regulates the rate at which hemoglobin binds with o2?
2.what is the oxygenhemoglobin dissociation curve?
1. temperature, o2 pressure, co2 pressure and concentration of BPG
2. a curve showing the relationship between the degree of Hb saturation and o2 pressure of the blood is not linear because affinity of Hb for o2 changes with o2 binding.
1. if the curve is shifted to the right, is Hb increased or decreased in its affinity? what does this mean for o2 delivered to blood?
2. what does a curve to the left mean?
1. decreased. it enhances oxygen unloading from the blood to tissues
2. increased affinity, making the o2 easier for the Hb to pick up but harder to release
1. what is the bohr effect?
2. what is a by product of metabolic activity? how does this affect hemoglobins affinity towards o2?
1. declining pH (acidosis) weakens the hB oxygen bond. as a result, o2 unloading is enhanced where it is most needed
2. heat; it increases its affinity, increases BPG synthesis.
1. name 4 forms of hypoxia
2. whats anemic?
3. what is ischemic?
1. anemia, ischemia, histotoxicity, hypoxemia
2. too few rbcs produced or abnormal Hb
3. inadequate blood flow
1. what is histotoxic?
2. whats hypoxemic?
1. cells unable to use delivered o2 for example, cyanide poisoning.
2. reduced arterial o2 pressure, for example, high altitude
1. a noninvasive monitoring technique used to estimate the measurement of arterial oxygen saturation of hB
2. carbon dioxide can be transported in the blood in three forms
1. pulse oximetry
2. dissolved in plasma, chemically bound to hemoglobin. 20% is carried in rbc's as carbaminohemoglobin, and bicarbonate iron in plasma.
1. why does carbon dioxide dissolved in RBC's faster than plasma?
2. what is carbonic anhydrase?
1. because of carbonic anhydrase.
2. an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of co2 to water and carbonic acid.
1. what happens once bicarbonate reaches the tissues?