42 notecards = 11 pages (4 cards per page)
a substance that promotes normal growth, maintenance, and repair
What are the major nutrients?
carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
What is the molecule ultimately used by body cells to make ATP?
Excess glucose is converted to?
Glycogen or stored fat
What are referred to as "empty calorie" foods?
refined carbohydrate foods such as candy and soft drinks
What are the two essential fatty acids?
Linoleic and linolenic acid, found in most vegetables
What is the most abundant dietary lipid?
What do dietary fats do that is so helpful for our body?
1. Help the body absorb vitamins
Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide:
1. Protective cushioning
Dietary requirements for lipids?
Higher for infants and children than for adults due to the very active myelination in children
Proteins; complete and incomplete
Complete: eggs, milk, milk products, meat, and fish
What do proteins give us?
Essential amino acids and nitrogen
What are the two amino acids needed by infants?
Histidine and arginine
What vitamins are made by the body?
D, K, and B
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
B-complex and C
What does B12 require in order to be ingested?
Gastric intrinsic factor
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A,D,E, and K
What vitamins also act in an antioxidant cascade?
A,C, and E
Which vitamin can be harmful during pregnancy?
What are the seven minerals required in moderate amounts? (must-know)
Calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium
Which mineral salts harden bone?
Calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium
What minerals help maintain normal osmolarity, water balance, and are essential in nerve and muscle function?
Sodium and chloride
Absorptive and Postabsorptive states (in reference to a meal)
Absorptive: the time during and shortly after nutrient intake
Major metabolic thrust is ANABOLISM and NRG storage
What is the body's major energy fuel?
What are excess amino acids converted into?
They are deanimated and used for NRG or stored as fat in the liver
What controls the absorptive state?
What is insulin stimulated by?
Increased blood glucose, elevated amino acid levels, and Gastrin/CCK/Secretin
Major metabolic thrust in postabsorptive state?
What form of energy do nervous tissues exclusively take?
What is the liver the center of?
powerful appetitue enhances
What part of our brain regulates food intake?
The HYPOTHALAMUS releases peptides that influence feeding behavior
Causes a craving for carbohydrates
Provides a craving for fats
GLP-1 and serotonin:
Makes us feel full and satisfied
What two hormones STIMULATE hunger?
Glucagon and epinephrine
What two hormones DEPRESS hunger?
Insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK)
How does temperature affect eating behavior?
Increased body temperature may inhibit eating behavior
Do psychological factors affect eating behavior?
Yes, some psychological factors that have little to do with caloric balance can actually influence eating behavior
Why do we gain weight in winter!!
Natural instinct to create "blubber", and boredom!
Suppresses the secretion of neuropeptide Y. Leptin is secreted by the fat tissue and acts as an overall satiety signal