253 notecards = 64 pages (4 cards per page)
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a
single oxygen atom by
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is
attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule.
What is this attraction called?
Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface
tension of water?
Liquid water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?
Basedon your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute
molecule depicted here is most likely
The element present in all organic molecules is
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
Research indicates that ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve
inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enantiomers; that is,
The two molecules shown in the figure above are best described as
Organic chemistry is currently defined as
Which of the following is not a polymer?
What is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers
How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a
polymer that is 11 monomers long?
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between
dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
The molecular formula for glucose is C₆H₁2O₆. What would be the
molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose
molecules together by dehydration reactions?
The enzyme amylase can break glycosidic linkages between glucose monomers only if the monomers are the α form. Which of the following could amylase break down?
A molecule with the chemical formula C₆H₁₂O₆ is probably a
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined
by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose
Which of the following statements concerning saturated fats is not
The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule
Upon chemical analysis, a particular polypeptide was found to contain
100 amino acids. How many peptide bonds are present in this protein?
Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure
of a protein?
Which type of interaction stabilizes the α helix and the β pleated
sheet structures of proteins?
Which level of protein structure do the α helix and the β pleated
The tertiary structure of a protein is the
What type of covalent bond between amino acid side chains (R groups)
functions in maintaining a polypeptide's specific three-dimensional
Changing a single amino acid in a protein consisting of 325 amino
DNAase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the covalent
bonds that join nucleotides together. What would first happen to DNA
molecules treated with DNAase?
Which of the following statements about the 5' end of a
polynucleotide strand of DNA is correct?
One of the primary functions of RNA molecules is to
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules
known as nucleotides?
Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the pyrimidine type?
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3',
the other complementary strand would have the sequence
Which of the following is an example of hydrolysis?
Which of the following is not a monomer/polymer pairing?
The molecule shown in Figure 5.3 is a
Which of the following categories includes all others in the list?
The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in
hydrogen bonding is the
Which of the following pairs of base sequences could form a short
stretch of a normal double helix of DNA?
Which of the following statements is/are true regarding the chemical
reaction illustrated in Figure 5.5?
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except
Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for
certain types of cells?
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in
producing which of the following molecules?
The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and
function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this
Which type or organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that will likely become part of the cell membrane?
Hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles contains these hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells?
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs.
Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this
process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic
Which plant cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in
In a plant cell, DNA may be found
The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually
identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic
cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the
mitochondria. In light of the endosymbiont theory for the evolutionary
origin of mitochondria, where is most ATP synthesis likely to occur in
One of the key innovations in the evolution of eukaryotes from a
prokaryotic ancestor is the endomembrane system. What eukaryotic
organelles or features might have evolved as a part of, or as an
elaboration of, the endomembrane system?
A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA,
ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from
A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the
mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the
heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, whereas organelles
in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and
lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively,
Which structure is not part of the endomembrane system?
Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
Which structure-function pair is mismatched?
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP.
If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein
that will be secreted by a cell?
Which cell would be best for studying lyosomes?
Some regions of the plasma membrane, called lipid rafts, have a
higher concentration of cholesterol molecules. As a result, these
Singer and Nicolson's fluid mosaic model of the membrane proposed
According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the
following is a true statement about membrane phospholipids?
Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for why
unsaturated fatty acids help keep any membrane more fluid at lower
The primary function of polysaccharides attached to the glycoproteins
and glycolipids of animal cell membranes is
What kinds of molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily?
Nitrous oxide gas molecules diffusing across a cell's plasma membrane
is an example of
Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of
a plasma membrane most rapidly?
Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?
Water passes quickly through cell membranes because
Which of the following statements correctly describes the normal
tonicity conditions for typical plant and animal cells?
When a plant cell, such as one from a peony stem, is submerged in a
very hypotonic solution, what is likely to occur?
Glucose diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The
cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large
quantities of glucose from the glucose-rich food into their
glucose-poor cytoplasm. Using this information, which transport
mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
Which of the following is most likely true of a protein that
cotransports glucose and sodium ions into the intestinal cells of an
The movement of potassium into an animal cell requires
The sodium-potassium pump in animal cells requires cytoplasmic ATP to
pump ions across the plasma membrane. When the proteins of the pump
are first synthesized in the rough ER, what side of the ER membrane
will the ATP binding site be on?
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis
White blood cells engulf bacteria through what process?
A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes contained in
A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water- equal to the volume of blood lost- is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
In what way do the membranes of a eukaryotic cell vary?
According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins
of the membrane are mostly
Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane
Which of the following processes includes all others?
Based on the figure above, which of these experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?
Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking
down large molecules into smaller ones?
Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways?
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic
Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described as
During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed
reaction has a ∆G of -20 kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme
in the reaction, what will be the ∆G for the new reaction?
Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?
Reactants capable of interacting to form products in a chemical reaction must first overcome a thermodynamic barrier known as the reaction's
Which of the following is true of enzymes?
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
According the the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme catalysis, which of the following is correct?
Which of the following statements describes enzyme cooperativity?
When you have a severe fever, what grave consequence may occur if the
fever is not controlled?
For the enzyme-catalyzed reaction shown in the figure, which of these
treatments will cause the greatest increase in the rate of the
reaction, if the initial reactant concentration is 1.0 micromolar?
In the figure, why does the reaction rate plateau at higher reactant
Increasing the substrate concentration in an enzymatic reaction would overcome which of the following?
Which curve(s) on the graphs may represent the temperature and pH
profiles of an enzyme taken from a bacterium that lives in a mildly
alkaline hot springs at temperatures of 70°C or higher?
Which temperature and pH profile curves on the graphs were most
likely generated from analysis of an enzyme from a human stomach where
conditions are strongly acid?
how does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme reaction?
Some of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive
inhibitors of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the
high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires
mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these
competitive inhibitors. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme
would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug-resistant
The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway
inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is most precisely described as
Allosteric enzyme regulation is usually associated with
How might an amino acid change at a site distant from the active site
of the enzyme alter the enzyme's substrate specificity?
Which of the following terms best describes the forward reaction in
Which of the following represents the ΔG of the reaction in Figure
Which of the following in Figure 8.1 would be the same in either an
enzyme-catalyzed or a noncatalyzed reaction?
Which of the following represents the activation energy needed for
the enzyme-catalyzed reverse reaction, C + D → A + B, in Figure 8.1?
Which of the following represents the activation energy required for
a noncatalyzed reaction in Figure 8.1?
Which of the following is the most correct interpretation of the
Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to
fumarate. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles
succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase.
Increasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the
inhibitory effect of malonic acid.
What is malonic acid's role with respect to succinate dehydrogenase?
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A
binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its
active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A
binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its
active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence:
Catabolism is to anabolism as ________ is to ________.
1) When the temperature of the outside air exceeds their internal
body temperature, jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will
2) If thermoregulation is considered to be a secondary function of
the large ears of jackrabbits, then the primary function of the ears
40) The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal
internal environment is termed
45) To prepare flight muscles for use on a cool morning, hawkmouth
46) In a survivably cold environment, an ectotherm is more likely to
survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally
sized endotherm because the ectotherm
47) Humans can lose, but cannot gain, heat through the process of
48) An example of an ectothermic organism that has few or no
behavioral options when it comes to its ability to adjust its body
temperature is a
54) The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is
located in the
64) Hibernation and estivation during seasons of environmental stress
are both examples of
65) Panting by an overheated dog achieves cooling by
68) The thin horizontal arrows in the figure above show that
69) Examine the figure above. Near a goose's abdomen, the
countercurrent arrangement of the arterial and venous blood vessels
73) Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin,
a mouse, and a snake. The ________ would have the highest total annual
energy expenditure, and the ________ would have the highest energy
expenditure per unit mass.
74) Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has
76) You are studying a large tropical reptile that has a high and
relatively stable body temperature. How would you determine whether
this animal is an endotherm or an ectotherm?
Which of the following statements describes the results of this
When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an
oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes
Which of the following statements describes NAD⁺?
Where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotic cells?
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what
percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly
in which process or event?
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether
oxygen (O₂) is present or absent?
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to
Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a
Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric
acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO₂)
from one molecule of pyruvate?
In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of
energy that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?
In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about five
times the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose must
Which of the following normally occurs regardless of whether or not
oxygen (O₂) is present?
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by
fermentation, resulting in the production of
In alcohol fermentation, NAD⁺ is regenerated from NADH by
One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid
fermentation is to
When skeletal muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they become
fatigued and painful. This is now known to be caused by
Starting with one molecule of isocitrate and ending with fumarate, how many ATP molecules can be made through substrate-level phosphorylation (see Figure 9.2)?
If pyruvate oxidation is blocked, what will happen to the levels of
oxaloacetate and citric acid in the citric acid cycle shown in Figure
Starting with citrate, which of the following combinations of
products would result from three acetyl CoA molecules entering the
citric acid cycle (see Figure 9.2)?
For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and
the citric acid cycle (see Figure 9.2), what is the total number of
NADH + FADH₂ molecules produced?
Figure 9.3 shows the electron transport chain. Which of the following
is the combination of substances that is initially added to the chain?
Which of the protein complexes labeled with Roman numerals in Figure
9.3 will transfer electrons to O₂?
In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be
catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate (1)
loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO₂, (2) is
oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and (3) is
bonded to coenzyme A.
Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will
disrupt the membranes. However, the fragments will reseal "inside
out." These little vesicles that result can still transfer
electrons from NADH to oxygen and synthesize ATP. If the membranes are
agitated further, however, the ability to synthesize ATP is lost.
After the further agitation of the membrane vesicles, what must be
lost from the membrane?
What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction?
Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is released during which of the following stages
of cellular respiration?
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H⁺
into which location in eukaryotic cells?
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?
How many oxygen molecules (O₂) are required each time a molecule of
glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water
via aerobic respiration,?
Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)
is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water?
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the
complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) in aerobic
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of
photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct
A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant
appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are
being absorbed by this pigment?
Which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship
between photosynthesis and respiration?
Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?
Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack
photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the
lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be
What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?
Suppose the interior of the thylakoids of isolated chloroplasts were
made acidic and then transferred in the dark to a pH 8 solution. What
would be likely to happen?
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix
into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis
translocates protons from
In photosynthetic cells, synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic
mechanism occurs during
The reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O₂) take place in
The accumulation of free oxygen in Earth's atmosphere began
A flask containing photosynthetic green algae and a control flask
containing water with no algae are both placed under a bank of lights,
which are set to cycle between 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark.
The dissolved oxygen concentrations in both flasks are monitored.
Predict what the relative dissolved oxygen concentrations will be in
the flask with algae compared to the control flask.
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
A gardener is concerned that her greenhouse is getting too hot from too much light, and seeks to shade her platens with colored translucent plastic sheets. What color should she use to reduce overall light energy, but still maximize plant growth?
Figure 10.1 shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the
action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?
What wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving
Which of the following is characterized by a cell releasing a signal molecule into the environment, followed by a number of cells in the immediate vicinity responding?
The function of phosphatases in signal transduction is best described as to
When a neuron responds to a particular neurotransmitter by opening
gated ion channels, the neurotransmitter is serving as which part of
the signal pathway?
Testosterone functions inside a cell by
Which of the following is true of transcription factors?
Because most receptors are membrane proteins, which of the following
is usually true?
Which of the following is the best explanation for the fact that most
transduction pathways have multiple steps?
What are scaffolding proteins?
Which of the following types of signaling is represented in the
In the figure, the dots in the space between the two structures
represent which of the following?
Binding of a signaling molecule to which type of receptor leads
directly to a change in the distribution of ions on opposite sides of
Lipid-soluble signaling molecules, such as testosterone, cross the
membranes of all cells but affect only target cells because
Consider this pathway: epinephrine → G protein-coupled receptor → G
protein → adenylyl cyclase → cAMP. Identify the second messenger.
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of
electrons during photosynthesis?
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Why?
4) Engulfing-phagocytic cells of innate immunity include all of the
6) An inflammation-causing signal released by mast cells at the site
of an infection is
11) Antihistamine treatment reduces
14) The cells and signaling molecules that initiate inflammatory
23) Adaptive immunity depends on
Which statement best describes the difference in responses of effector B cells (plasma cells) and cytotoxic T cells?
50) Arrange these components of the mammalian immune system as it
first responds to a pathogen in the correct sequence.
25) A key part of the humoral immune response is
26) The receptors on T cells and B cells bind to
27) An epitope is
30) Clonal selection of B cells activated by antigen exposure leads
to production of
48) Select the pathway that would lead to the activation of cytotoxic
32) A newborn who is accidentally given a drug that destroys the
thymus would most likely
35) Secondary immune responses upon a second exposure to a pathogen
are due to the activation of
36) The MHC is important in a T cell's ability to
51) A cell type that interacts with both the humoral and
cell-mediated immune pathways is a
the nucleus and most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the
40) The following steps refer to various stages in transmission at a
The point of concoction between two communicating neurons is called
7) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals are released by
8) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals are received by
10) For a neuron with an initial membrane potential at -70 mV, an
increase in the movement of potassium ions out of that neuron's
cytoplasm would result in
12) The operation of the sodium-potassium "pump" moves
23) Action potentials move along axons
24) A toxin that binds specifically to voltage-gated sodium channels
in axons would be expected to
63) The minimum graded depolarization needed to operate the
voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels is indicated by the label
The cell is not hyperpolarized; however, repolarization is in
progress, as the sodium channels are closing or closed, and many
potassium channels have opened at label
after the depolarization phase of an action potential, the resting potential is restored by
The "undershoot" phase of after- hyper polarization is due to
31) Saltatory conduction is a term applied to
33) Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals via
42) Adjacent neurons with direct (non-neurotransmitter) action
potential transfer are said to have electrical synapses, based on the
69) A common feature of action potentials is that they
70) Where are neurotransmitter receptors located?
73) Which of the following is a direct result of depolarizing the
presynaptic membrane of an axon terminal?