120 notecards = 30 pages (4 cards per page)
1. The film record produced to visualize the internal structures of the body is called.
2. Any process by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron is called.
3. In radiology, which discipline uses high-energy radiation to treat cancer?
4. To image a blood vessel in the body the introduction of what is used?
5. What is mammography?
Radiography of the breast
6. What is CT imaging?
Computed Tomography (CT ) - recording of a predetermined plane in the body using an x-ray beam that is measured, recorded, and them processed by a computer form display on a monitor
7. What is MRI imaging?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Process of using a magnetic field and radio-frequencies to create sectional images of the body
8. What is the main difference between CT and MRI imaging?
CT's use a x-ray beam which causes ionization where the MRI uses a magnetic field and radiofrequencies which does not.
9. Who discovered X-Rays?
Wilhem C. Rongten
10. When were x-rays discovered?
November 8, 1895
11. What is the relationship between MRI and CT?
12. Who is the AHRA?
American Healthcare Radiology Administrators - organized to promote management practice in the administration of imaging services. approx 4000 members/ journal Radiology Management/ offer Certified RAdiology Administrator (CRA) examination
13. What is the purpose of the ARRT registry?
American Registry of Radiologic Technologists - Encouraging the study and elevating the standards of radiologic technology, examining and certifying eligible candidates, and periodically publishing a listing of registrants
14. What is the purpose of the ACR?
American College of Radiology - to advance the science of radiology, improve service to the patient, study the socioeconomic aspects of the proactive of radiology, and encourage continuing education for radiologists and persons practicing in allied professional fields.
15. What modalities does the ARRT certify?
16. What does the title of RT (R) represent?
Registered Technologist - Radiographer
17. For Registered Technologist, the required CE credits per two year period is how many?
18. What behaviors does the psychomotor domain include?
process of doing an action
19. What behaviors does the cognitive domain include?
process of thinking (analysis) of an action
20. What behaviors does the affective domain include?
analyzing personal values and feelings and managing ethicl situations
21. What is the beam of radiation that exits the tube called?
22. What is the beam of radiation that exits the patient called?
23. What is the non-diagnostic radiation either exiting the patient or prior to the patient is called?
24. The process of altering the beam of radiation as it passes through the patient is termed what?
25. What is Radiopaque?
NOT easily penetrable by x-rays or other forms of radiant energy
26. What is Radiolucent?
Permitting the passage of x-rays or other forms of radiant energy with tittle attenuation
27. What is SID?
Source-to-Image Distance - distance between the source of x-rays (usually the focal spot of the x-ray tube) and the image receptor
28. What is OID?
29. What is a Collimator used for?
Controls the size and shape of the x-ray field coming out of the x-ray tube.
30. Positive Beam Limitation refers to what?
(PBL) form of x-ray collimation of field size that ensures the x-ray exposure field is no larger than the receptor size
31. What are exposure factors?
Influence and determine the quantity and quality of radiation a patient is exposed to
32. Why do we utilize a grid?
A grid is a device that is designed to remove as many scattered photons exiting the patient as possible before they reach the IR.
33. The device that a cassette is placed in prior to exposure of the patient is termed what?
34. List everything you know about mAs.
35. What can be done by the technologist to control Compton scattering?
use rule of ALARA
36. List everything you know about KVP.
37. What is density?
The degree of darkening or blackness of exposed and processed photographic or radiographic film
38. What is contrast?
Difference between adjacent densities on a radiographic image
39. Does the degree of attenuation depend on the tissue characteristics? Explain.
Yes, depending on the type of body tissue irradiated. EX. bone tissue, being more densely packed and made of harder material, attenuates the beam to a greater degree than sof tissue of the same thickness.
40. The misrepresentation of true image size and shape on an image is termed what?
41. What is the control panel?
Control console is the interface between the radiographer and the sophisticated electronics of the x-ray machine
42. The control panel consists of what?
43. Draw a basic X-Ray tube and label the parts.
44. The automatic collimator of an x-ray machine is used to do what and is termed what?
Performs positive beam limitation (PBL) and allows the x-ray unit to detect the size of the image receptor the radiographer is using and automatically collimates to a size not larger than the image receptor.
45. What does the rotor switch do?
Part of the rotor-exposure switch which activates the rotor, or prep, and causes the anode to rotor and prepares the x-ray tube for the exposure factors that have been selected. After the tube has been properly prepared, the second switch is activated to begin the exposure.
46. When x-ray equipment is taken to a patient room that equipment is termed what?
47. Who is JRCERT and what is the purpose of JRCERT?
Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)
48. Who is JCAHO and what is the purpose of JCAHO?
JCAHO is an abbreviation for Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. It is an organization made up of individuals from the private medical sector to develop and maintain standards of quality in medical facilities in the United States. The JCAHO has no official connection to United States government regulatory agencies, and has no legal enforcement power; however, since many medical facilities rely on JCAHO accreditation procedures to indicate to the public that their particular institution meets quality standards, JCAHO and its policies has taken on a real importance in the medical field, despite the lack of official government sanction.
49. Who is ASRT and what is the purpose of the ASRT?
American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT)
50. What is the CARE bill?
The CARE bill is a bill that seeks to protect patients from over exposure to radiation and pursues basic education and certification standards for healthcare workers who administer radiologic procedures. CARE stands for Consistency, Accuracy, Responsibility, and Excellence in Medical Imagining and Radiation Therapy.
51. What are some specifications of the CARE Bill?
The bill was first introduced to the U.S. Senate in 2012 and pressed on the fact that it would save the government large amounts of money as well as improve overall patient care. It would be applicable to every state in the union and limit, if not eliminate, inconsistencies with formal education. The CARE bill is not a licensure bill, so states are not required to license anyone as a result. Once the bill is passed, it will take three years to implement it nationwide.
52. How is Radiation to the RT measured?
53. What is gonadal shielding?
process of placing protection (lead shield) over the reproduction organs during when beam is 4 to 5 cm away. Especially important in children and adults of reproductive age.
54. Why would someone use gonadal shielding?
minimizes reproductive organ exposure to radiation
55. What is the term used to define the science of rightness and wrongness of human conduct and character?
56. What are the three types of medical law?
57. Which type of law defines individual rights?
58. What would cause you to use a grid with the IR instead of just the IR only for imaging?
minimize scatter radiation and create a sharper image without the "fog" and creating greater contrast
59. What is an image receptor used for?
Medium used to capture the image for the recording, such as x-ray film or a digital imaging plate
60. How does the film become exposed during an x-ray exam using an IR?
61. The “boiling off of Electrons” by the Cathode is termed what?
62. How are x-rays produced?
X-ray beam energy is produced using high-voltage electricity.
63. What is ALARA?
as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
64. Who follows ALARA?
Radiologic Technologist and those preforming x-rays
65. How is mAs calculated?
Calculated by simple multiplication of milliamperage (mA) and exposure time (S)
Regardless of the mA and time combinations, the same mAs value will yield the same exposure (mAs Reciprocity Law).
66. How can a technologist be accused of fraud?
generally defined as a willful and intentional misrepresentation of facts that may cause harm to an individual or result in loss of an individual right or property.
67. What are the results of a technologist telling someone about a patient’s exam?
68. What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
the full range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation including TV/Radio, infrared, visible light, gamma rays, x-rays, and cosmic rays.
69. What are the different ethical theories and their main principles?
70. What is the advantage of using the fluoroscopic unit over the standard radiographic exposure equipment?
studies internal activities,processes, and presents images in "real time". - GI movement and structure, blood vessels, genitorurianry function, and joints
71. Where is the x-ray tube located in the fluoroscopic unit?
the x-ray tube is located above the patient
72. In analog imaging, the film is processed in what way?
developed to see the latent image.
73. What three things must be present for x-rays to be produced?
74. Why is there a vacuum in the glass x-ray tube?
for optimal production of an x-ray. Vacuum contained in enclosed special heat resistant glass.
75. Why are there two filaments, large and small, in the cathode?
Positive and negative terminals?...
76. What is the actual focal spot?
Focal spot is the area of the anode surface which receives the beam of electrons from the cathode.
77. What is the effective focal spot?
Focal spot is the area of the anode surface which receives the beam of electrons from the cathode.
78. What are some career options in the radiology profession?
79. List an overview of the history of medicine.
o Early Years
80. What are some responsibilities of a radiographer?
81. What are some key phrases a radiographer should use when conversing with a patient?
keep it simple and do not diagnosis
82. What is accreditation?
Accreditation – voluntary peer process through which an agency grants recognition to an institution for a program of study that meets specified criteria.
83. What is certification?
Certification - Voluntary process through which an agency grant recognition to an individual on demonstration, usually by examination, of specialized professional skills
84. Who is the examining body for the radiography profession?
Joint Review Committee (JRC)
85. What are some symptoms of stress?
repeated colds, ulcers, muscle stiffness, elevated cholesterol, excess sleeping, irritability, and headaches
86. What is the fight-or-flight response?
The physiologic reaction to a real or imagined threat arising from emotion of both fear and anger - internal - release of hormones to increase metabolism, increases in fats and sugars for energy, and increase sin heart rate and respiration.
87. What are some behaviors or thoughts that might increase the fight-or-flight response?
88. What are some study techniques that enhance retention?
89. List the steps of successful test taking?
90. What is critical thinking?
Creative action based on professional knowledge and experience involving sound judgement applied with high ethical standards and integrity
91. Why is critical thinking and problem solving important in radiologic sciences?
Not every case, patient, situation is the same.
92. What are the steps of problem solving?
93. What is the purpose of clinical education?
The purpose of a clinical education is to provide an environment in which the student can transfer learning from the didactic and laboratory settings to real-world, patient-care experiences
94. Why is it important to adhere to major clinical education policies?
improved integration of the didactic, clinical and affctive aspects of the programs
Summarize the clinical education process.
didactic to introductions to "real world" experiences with mentorships and guidance given be RTs and clinical supervisors
96. Describe the structure of the administration of a hospital.
97. Describe the structure of the radiology department.
98. How does the radiology department fit into the hospital?
Allied health - assist with diagnostic and treatment of the patients - same principles and focus as the hosptial
99. What is the role of the radiology administrator?
100. Describe regulating agencies that affect radiology.
101. Describe the 3 major categories of image receptor systems used today in radiography.
102. What is a latent image?
invisible image created after exposure but before processing
103. What is a manifest image?
the change on an x-ray film that becomes visible when the latent image undergoes appropriate chemical processing.
104. Identify the typical features of a radiographic system.
105. What is an R/F room used for?
radiography/fluoroscopy room (R/F)
106. Identify the units used to measure radiation exposure.
o Units of Measurement
107. Explain the ways in which ionizing radiation interacts with the body.
X-Ray Interactions with Matter
108. What are some methods to protect the patient from excessive radiation exposure?
109. What are some methods used to protect the occupational worker from excessive radiation exposure?
110. Explain the ethics of the radiologic sciences profession
"acts in the best interest of the patient"
111. Explain the four step problem-solving process of ethical analysis.
112. Identify moral dilemmas encountered in patient relationships.
faith, beliefs, and differences of behavior....
113. List key components of a patient’s medical record.
How does a patient’s medical record affect health care facilities and medical reimbursement?
Couple of different ways, treatment and billing
115 What does HIPAA stand for?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
116 What is the purpose of HIPAA?
to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the health care system by mandating confidentiality of health information - privacy, security, and the establishment of standards and requirements for the electronic transmission of certain health information
117. What is negligence?
118. What four things must be present for proof of medical negligence?
119. What is medical fraud?
A willful and intentional misrepresentation of facts that may cause harm to an individual or result in loss of an individual right of property
120. What is informed consent?
Person's agreement ot allow something to happen (such as surgery) that is based on a full disclosure of the facts needed to make the decision intelligently - risks, alternatives, benefits, etc