116 notecards = 29 pages (4 cards per page)
What is the major distinguishing characteristic of fungi?
A filamentous organism has been isolated from decomposing organic
matter. This organism has a cell wall but no chloroplasts. How would
you classify this organism?
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains.
What are the domains?
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material and have their DNA encased within an nuclear envelope?
Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute
quantities. Which of the following is a trace element that is required
by humans and other vertebrates, but not by other organisms such as
bacteria or plants?
The atomic number of neon is 10. Therefore, which of the following is
most correct about an atom of neon?
The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. Nitrogen-15 is heavier than
nitrogen-14 because the atomic nucleus of nitrogen-15 contains how
The atomic number of each atom is given to the left of each of the
elements below. Which of the atoms has the same valence as carbon
From its atomic number of 15, it is possible to predict that the
phosphorus atom has
Knowing just the atomic mass of an element allows inferences about
which of the following?
Which of the following is not considered to be a weak molecular
Molybdenum has an atomic number of 42. Several common isotopes exist,
with mass numbers of 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, and 100. Therefore, which
of the following can be true?
Which of the following molecules contains the most polar covalent
Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional
If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that
The two molecules shown in the figure above are best described as
The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is
Which of the following takes place as an ice cube cools a drink?
Which bond or interaction would be difficult to disrupt when
compounds are put into water?
One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is
carbonic acid (H₂CO₃). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that, when placed
in an aqueous solution, dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO₃⁻ and
a hydrogen ion (H⁺). Thus,
What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
The half-life of carbon-14 is 5730. If a sample contains 4 mg of carbon-14, how much will it contain in 17,190 years?
Research indicates that ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve
inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enantiomers; that is,
A carbon skeleton is covalently bonded to both an amino group and a
carboxyl group. When placed in water it
Three or four of the following illustrations depict different structural isomers of the organic compound with molecular formula C₆H₁₄. For clarity, only the carbon skeletons are shown; hydrogen atoms that would be attached to the carbons have been omitted. Which one, if any, is NOT a structural isomer of this compound?
What is the major difference between a kingdom and a domain?
The partial negative charge in a molecule of water occurs because
Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface
tension of water?
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and
energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight
A water sample from a hot thermal vent contained a single-celled
organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is its most
How many structural isomers are possible for a substance having the
molecular formula C₄H₁₀?
A solution contains 0.0000001(10⁻⁷) moles of hydroxyl ions [OH⁻] per
liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond(s) with other
The element present in all organic molecules is
Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is
attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule.
What is this attraction called?
Testosterone and estradiol are
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its
Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of
a plasma membrane most rapidly?
On food packages, to what does the term insoluble fiber refer?
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between
dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours
become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution
become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that the cells of the
celery stalks are
When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells,
they can achieve the finest resolution by using
Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the
cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
Which of the following statements about the 5' end of a
polynucleotide strand of DNA is correct?
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
A) Golgi → ER → lysosome
B) ER → Golgi → nucleus
C) ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
D) ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
E) nucleus → ER → Golgi
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules
known as nucleotides?
The structure depicted in Figure 5.7 shows the
A) 1-4 linkage of the α glucose monomers of starch.
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
Water passes quickly through cell membranes because
Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the
synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
In order for a protein to be an integral membrane protein it would
have to be
The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is –CH₂–OH. The R
group or side chain of the amino acid leucine is –CH₂–CH–(CH₃)₂. Where
would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in
A biologist wants specifically to examine the surfaces of different types of cells in kidney tubules of small mammals. The cells in question can be distinguished by external shape, size, and 3D characteristics. Which of the following would be the optimum method for her study?
A) transmission electron microscopy
When biological membranes are frozen and then fractured, they tend to
break along the middle of the bilayer. The best explanation for this
Which structure-function pair is mismatched? A)lysosome; intracellular digestion
B)microtubule; muscle contraction
C)ribosome; protein synthesis
D)Golgi; protein trafficking
E)nucleolus; production of ribosomal subunits
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis
If cells are grown in a medium containing radioactive ³⁵S, which of
these molecules will be labeled?
Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
n a paramecium, cell surface integral membrane proteins are
At which bond would water need to be added to achieve hydrolysis of the peptide, back to its component amino acid?
There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid
different from another?
What types of proteins are not synthesized in the rough ER?
Which component is the peripheral protein?
Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?
The molecular formula for glucose is C₆H₁2O₆. What would be the
molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose
molecules together by dehydration reactions?
Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural
components of the cell membrane?
Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A cell
treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to
An animal cell lacking oligosaccharides on the external surface of
its plasma membrane would likely be impaired in which function?
Why are human sex hormones considered to be lipids?
An organism with a cell wall would most likely be unable to take in
Which molecule has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties and
would be found in plasma membranes?
Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the purine type?
ECM proteins are made by ribosomes in which part of a eukaryotic cell?
a) nuclear envelope
d) golgi apparatus
e) rough ER
Which of these molecules is not formed by dehydration reactions?
Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that
will be secreted?
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined
by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose
Which of the following pairs of base sequences could form a short
stretch of a normal double helix of DNA?
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of
electrons during photosynthesis?
One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane
reacts by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, and then activating
relay proteins. Which type does this?
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that
passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to
different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then
noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the
largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are _____.
A) 2 NAD+, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
B) 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
C) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP
D) 6 CO2, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
What event accompanies energy absorption by chlorophyll (or other
pigment molecules of the antenna complex)?
Adenylyl cyclase has the opposite effect of which of the following?
Which of the following statements is a logical consequence of the
second law of thermodynamics?
Scientists isolate cells in various phases of the cell cycle. They find a group of cells that have 1 1/2 times more DNA than G1 phase cells. The cells of this group are _____.
A) between the G1 and S phases in the cell cycle
B) in the G2 phase of the cell cycle
C) in the M phase of the cell cycle
D) in the S phase of the cell cycle
Which curve(s) on the graphs may represent the temperature and pH
profiles of an enzyme taken from a bacterium that lives in a mildly
alkaline hot springs at temperatures of 70°C or higher?
During a laboratory experiment, you discover that an enzyme-catalyzed
reaction has a ∆G of -20 kcal/mol. If you double the amount of enzyme
in the reaction, what will be the ∆G for the new reaction?
This question is based on the reaction A + B ↔ C + D shown in the
During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?
Early investigators thought the oxygen produced by photosynthetic plants came from carbon dioxide. In fact, it comes from _____.
D) electrons from NADPH
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
Which of the following types of signaling is represented in the
In the figure, the dots in the space between the two structures
represent which of the following?
In autotrophic bacteria, where is chlorophyll located?
A) in chloroplast membranes
B) in the ribosomes
C) in the nucleoid
D) in the infolded plasma membrane
In a plant, the reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O2) take place in _____.
A) the light reactions alone
B) the Calvin cycle alone
C) the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle
One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to _____.
A) reduce NAD+ to NADH
B) reduce FAD+ to FADH2
C) oxidize NADH to NAD+
D) reduce FADH2 to FAD+
The first gap in the cell cycle (G1) corresponds to _____.
A) normal growth and cell function
B) the phase in which DNA is being replicated
C) the beginning of mitosis
D) the phase between DNA replication and the M phase
When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what
percentage of the ATP formed by the reactions of glycolysis?
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of
photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
If there are 20 duplicated chromosomes in a cell, how many centromeres are there?
Which of the following is an example of potential rather than kinetic
Which of the following statements describes the results of this
In the figure, why does the reaction rate plateau at higher reactant
Metaphase is characterized by _____.
A) aligning of chromosomes on the equator
B) splitting of the centromeres
D) separation of sister chromatids
As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH
consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of
ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra
ATP molecules come from?
If there are 30 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many
chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs _____.
A) in glycolysis
B) in the citric acid cycle
C) in both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
D) during oxidative phosphorylation
Kinetochore microtubules assist in the process of splitting centromeres by _____.
A) using motor proteins to split the centromere at specific arginine residues
B) creating tension by pulling toward opposite poles
C) sliding past each other like actin filaments
D) phosphorylating the centromere, thereby changing its conformation
Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the
thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will
have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
Which of the following occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?