64 notecards = 16 pages (4 cards per page)
Gluconeogenesis uses the same enzymatic reactions of glycolysis
except for the ________.
Glucose is stored as ________ in bacteria and animals.
Gluconeogenesis is the ________.
Glucose monomers can be released to fuel energy by degradation of
Gluconeogenesis generates ________.
The ________ is the site of most gluconeogenesis in mammals.
Which is evidence for gluconeogenesis being a more ancient metabolic
pathway than glycolysis?
The only known regulatory mechanism for pyruvate carboxylase
Gluconeogenesis is regulated by
An intermediate found in gluconeogenesis and not glycolysis
The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is most
Gluconeogenesis shares some, but not all, enzymes with the glycolytic
pathway. It would appear to be more efficient if both pathways used
all of the same enzymes since the pathways are essentially the
reverses of each other. Why don't both pathways use all of the same
In the Cori cycle, gluconeogenesis occurs in ________ and glycolysis
Any compound that can be converted to ________ can be a precursor for
Which of the following is not a precursor for gluconeogenesis?
The sequence of glucose conversion to lactate in peripheral tissues,
delivery of lactate to the liver, formation of glucose from lactate in
the liver, and delivery of glucose back to peripheral tissues is known
as the ________.
In ruminants, microorganisms produce propionate. The three-carbon
acid must be converted to ________ before entering the gluconeogenesis
During fasting, when glycogen supplies are depleted, ________ become
a major source of carbon for gluconeogenesis.
The reaction that converts amino acids into keto acids (such as
pyruvate) is called
Glycerol is converted to ________ when it is used for
A substrate cycle in a metabolic pathway ________.
When ATP levels are high, glycolysis is (stimulated, reduced)
________, and when AMP levels are high gluconeogenesis is (stimulated,
The interconversion of which pair of substrates is used as a
regulatory point in gluconeogenesis?
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate ________ glycolysis while it ________
Which is an intermediate formed in the conversion of glucose to
Sorbitol does not accumulate when glucose is not elevated
Which substance is not needed for the conversion of glucose to
What types of reactions are involved in the two-step conversion of
glucose to fructose?
What is a cause of cataracts in the eye lens of individuals with
The pentose phosphate pathway has two primary products. They are
Individuals with G6PDH deficiency have increased resistance to
malaria because the parasite does not survive well in cells
The non-oxidative stage of the pentose phosphate pathway ________.
The pentose phosphate pathway can alternatively be called the pentose
phosphate cycle because ________ is a net product of the pathway that
can be recycled.
Deficiencies in G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in humans
The major regulatory step of the pentose phosphate pathway is
catalyzed by which enzyme?
The non-oxidative stage of the pentose phosphate pathway produces
substances that are intermediates of ________.
Fragments containing three carbons can be transferred from a ketose
phosphate to an aldose phosphate by the enzyme ________.
What is the prosthetic group of transketolase?
Which is not a function of the main products of the pentose phosphate
The activity of glycogen phosphorylase can be controlled by
Why does glycolysis produce more energy (more ATP) from glucose units
released by glycogen degradation than from free glucose?
Glucose 1-phosphate formed by glycogen degradation is converted to
glucose 6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase. Why is this
Glycogen synthesis in vertebrates requires ________ to activate
Possible treatment for diabetes are inhibitors of glycogen
phosphorylase that mimic the natural inhibitory activity of ________
in non-diabetic persons.
What is the driving force for the reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose
pyrophosphorylase that converts glucose 1-phosphate to
Which statement is true about the reaction catalyzed by glycogen
Glycogen degradation occurs in
The enzyme for the key regulatory step in glycogen biosynthesis is
Glucagon is excreted when blood glucose is ________ (high, low),
while insulin is secreted when blood glucose is ________ (high, low).
Protein kinase A, which stimulates glycogen degradation, is activated
Binding of epinephrine to a1-adrenergic receptors has what
Glycogen phosphorylase is ________ (more, less) active when
phosphorylated, and it is ________ (activated, inhibited) by glucose
Phosphorylation can be used to either inactivate or activate enzymes.
This is a key element in the regulation of glucose metabolism.
Phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase ________ it; phosphorylation
of glycogen synthase ________ it.
In addition to control of activity by phosphorylation, phosphorylase
kinase is activated by
The sequence of enzymes active in liver to degrade glycogen in
response to glucagon is: ________. (~P indicates phosphorylation)
Unlike liver tissue, muscle and some other tissues differ in
regulation of glycogen metabolism because
Which is true about glycogen phosphorylase in liver and
Glycogen phosphorylase was the first enzyme shown to be regulated by
Which statement is false about glucagon?
During fasting, what role does gluconeogenesis play?
Which is a reasonable concentration for glucose in the blood?
Under starvation conditions, about how long does it take in humans
for the body to deplete the glycogen store in the liver?
In which order are the following energy sources (either directly or
through gluconeogenesis) depleted during starvation?