59 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Bergey's Manual contains
When conditions become inhospitable, members of the genus Clostridium
produce an internal durable, dormant form by the process of
The Gram-positive obligate anaerobe ________ causes a severe
The ________ are autotrophs which live in anaerobic environments
thought to be similar to conditions on the early Earth, and may have
diverged from other bacteria far back in time.
A large number of Gram-negative human pathogens are members of
A field biologist finds what might be a new species of prokaryote in sewage sludge. It is an obligate anaerobe that metabolizes organic acids and requires hydrogen gas. It lacks a peptidoglycan cell wall. The new find may be a____.
The anaerobic Clostridium species are troublesome pathogens largely
because of their capacity for
Members of the Streptomyces are environmentally important because they can degrade a wide range of compounds including lignin from trees, chitin and keratin from animals, and latex.
Mycoplasmas are named for the large quantities of mycolic acid in their cell walls.
Myxobacteria exhibit traits, such as cooperation and differentiation, that are not normally observed in prokaryotes.
Members of the genus Chlamydia are
The Gram-positive coccus ____ grows in irregular clusters, and is frequently found in the human nasal cavity. When it invades other parts of the body it can cause serious disease.
a. Clostridium perfringens
b. Staphylococcus aureus
c. Escherichia coli
d. Bacillus thuringiensis
e. Helicobacter pylori
A soil sample dilution spread on a plate containing carbohydrate-based medium yields a wide variety of colonies. One colony has no other bacterial colonies growing near it. Further investigation reveals the bacteria in the colony are Gram-positive and filamentous. The bacteria in the colony may be a member of the genus.
Sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the cell during ____ of mitosis.
Which of the following statements regarding meiosis is most
Which of the following pairs is mismatched
Which of the following types of protozoa contributes to limestone
formation in their fossilized state?
Which of the following is a cell type associated with sexual
reproduction in fungi?
Ciliates often have two kinds of nuclei that have different functions.
Algae can have different types of photosynthetic pigments that allow them to photosynthesize at various depths in water.
Myxamoebae act like protozoan amoebae only in the absence of water.
Current classification of the algae is based on morphologic characteristics.
The classification Protozoa is not an accepted taxon because it includes members of multiple kingdoms.
In what way do algae differ from plans?
a. All cells in their sexual reproductive structures become gametes.
b. They carry out photosynthesis with pigments other than chlorophyll a.
c. All algae are unicellular.
d. They carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis.
e. They have cell walls composed of carbohydrate.
Which of the following is associated with meiosis, but NOT with mitosis?
a. a zygote
b. a chromatid
c. a tetrad
d. a spindle
e. a centromere
Mites are responsible for the spread of
a. Lyme disease
b. Disease caused by Apicomplexans
d. Diseases caused by Rickettsias
e. Helminth diseases
Multiple mitoses followed by a single cytokinetic event is known as
d. coenocytic division
Which of the following is an accurate description of a
Which of the following is present in cells only during virus
Host specificity of a virus is due to
How are fungal viruses different from viruses that infect other
Which of the following may occur in a lysogenic infection, but not a
Which of the following statements regarding virus taxonomy is true?
Why is lysogeny advantageous to a bacteriophage?
Zones of clearing in cell cultures that are the result of virus
infection are called plaques. Sometimes ʺcloudy plaquesʺ are seen on
bacterial cultures infected with bacteriophage. What type of
Plaque assays are used for
Retroviruses require the activity of ____ to complete their infection
The development of a cancerous cell is said to require "multiple hits." This means
a. multiple oncogenic viruses infect the cell at the same time
b. multiple cell cycle regulators are inactivated at once
c. a series of separate events over time lead to the loss of cell cycle regulation
d. the cell must be infected with several different types of viruses to be transformed
e. several protoncogenes are activated at the same time
Which of the following agents is capable of inducing conversion of a prophage to the lytic cylce?
a. presence of +ssRNA
c. UV light
d. both UV light and X-rays
e. both UV light and the presence of +ssRNA
Why are diploid cells preferred over continuous cell cultures?
a. Diploid cells last far longer than continuous culture cells.
b. Continuous cell cultures are expensive to maintain.
c. Results from continuous culture cells do not apply to disease in whole organisms.
d. Diploid cells are more nearly like cells of whole organisms than continuous culture cells.
e. Diploid cells have undergone changes in their chromosome structure that make them more stable.
A microbe recovered from an environmental sample grows on a medium composed of agar and a mix of salts. The agar is not digested during incubation. The growth rate increases in high CO2 conditions. The organism is likely a(n)
e. the answer cannot be determined from the information provided.
Prokaryotes living in the ocean around volcanic vents use the volcanic gasses carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to fuel their metabolism. They are therefore
A microbe that grows only at the bottom of a tube of thioglycollate
medium is probably a(n)
You open a jar that has been in the refrigerator for a couple of weeks and find the contents do not look or smell right. What type of microbe has been growing in your refrigerator?
A microbiologist inoculates a growth medium with 100 bacterial
cells/ml. If the generation time of the species is 1 hour, and there
is no lag phase, how long will it be before the culture contains more
than 10,000 cells/ml?
Students in a microbiology lab are provided plates of medium to use in their bacterial culturing. The growth of organisms that can metabolize mannose sugar will result in the agar turning yellow, while the agar color remains unchanged if the mannose is not metabolized. The plates contain a ________ medium.
A 100 μl sample containing 1000 bacterial cells/μl in log phase growth is added to 9.9 ml of fresh culture medium broth. Assuming no nutrients are in limited supply, and a generation time of 30 minutes, how many bacteria will be present in the entire broth culture after six hours?
a. 6.0 x 105
b. 2.56 x 107
c. 1.2 x 106
d. 4.396 x 108
e. 6.0 x 106
The best method for preserving bacterial cells in storage for decades is
a. storing them in shrink-wrap
b. drying under anaerobic conditions
e. deep freezing
A Petroff-Hauser counting chamber is a(n)
a. device that measures the amount of light that passes through a culture
b. device used to count numbers of bacterial colonies on a Petri plate
c. glass slide containing an etched grid for counting microbes directly using a microscope
d. device that counts cells as they interrupt an electrical current
e. apparatus that traps bacterial cells on a membrane filter where they can be counted
Which of the following statements concerning reduction reactions is
Sulfanilamide is an antimicrobial drug that mimics the shape of an important substrate for a particular bacterial enzyme, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. This type of inhibition is known as
a. allosteric inhibition
b. noncompetitive inhibition
c. feedback inhibition
d. competitive inhibition
e. excitatory allosteric control
Which of the following statements concerning glycolysis is
Which of the following is (are) common to chemiosmosis and the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
a. electron transport only
b. a proton gradient only
c. reduction of NADP+ only
d. both electron transport and a proton gradient
e. electron transport, a proton gradient, and reduction of NADP+
What is the major product of the Calvin-Benson cycle that can then be
used to form glucose?
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning metabolism?
a. metabolism is all the chemical reactions of an organism, both anabolic, and catabolic
b. metabolism is the assembly of small molecules into macromolecules
c. metabolism is the production and expenditure of chemical energy
d. metabolism is the digestion of nutrients to release energy
e. metabolism is the assembly of macromolecules into cellular structure
If a cell reverses the process of beta-oxidation, which of the
following molecules will it make?
Which of the following is a TRUE statement concerning the structure
and function of enzymes?
Isomerases catalyze reactions in which