129 notecards = 33 pages (4 cards per page)
Define and compare the theories of bio-genesis and spontaneous generation
Bio-genesis is the principle that living organisms develop only from other living organisms and not from non-living matter. Spontaneous generation states that living organisms develop from non-living matter.
List the steps of Koch's Postulates and describe what they were designed to do
Can demonstrate the relationship of an organism to a disease.
Define germ theory
States that microorganisms can invade the body and can cause certain diseases.
List the major contributions to microbiology by the following people:
Insisted on hand washing
Proposed aseptic surgical techniques to reduce sepsis. He was the first to use phenol (carbolic acid) as a disinfectant
Demonstrated a non-cellular form of immunity which is called chemical or humoral immunity.
Avery,McLeod and McCarty
Determined that DNA was the genetic material in a cell
Using characteristics of organisms to identify, name and classify organisms
Purposes of taxonomy
To make it easier to study organisms if they are organized into groups or categorized, to provide a method of determining relationships between newly discovered groups, the show similarities between existing groups, to provide a universal language for communication between scientists, and to provide insight into possible evolutionary relationships between existing and extinct forms.
Developed the original scientific classification system. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Do king play chess on fairly grey Sundays?
Nomenclature- Scientific names
Two names- The 1st name is the genus (always capitalized); the 2nd name is the species (do not capitalize). Underline each part of the name; the space between is NOT underlined. Underlining is not necessary if italics are used.
Carl Woese- Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea
Eukarya contains 4 kingdoms: Plantae, protista, fungi and animalia. All organisms in this domain have eukaryotic cells, nucleus.
All pathogenic and some non=pathogenic prokaryotes, as well as photoautotrophic prokaryotes. These have peptidoglycan in their cells walls, no nucleus, and no kingdom classification.
Contains prokaryotes without peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Many live in extreme environments. No nucleus, no peptidoglycan.
lack cellular organization and incapable of performing most characteristics of life, they are not considered to be living organisms, and are not classified into domain or kingdom. Neither eukaryotic or procaryotic. Their basic structure is DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. With out host cell, this does not function.
Naming of Viruses
Genus and species names are NOT underlined for viruses.
Brief Survey of Life forms
fill in charts later
Name the major differences between eucaryotic and procaryotic cells.
1. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar in their chemical composition and chemical reactions
Divide and remain attached in chain-like patterns
Those that divide in multiple planes and form grapelike clusters or broad sheets
Cocci that appear in pairs after division
vertically aligned cells
Helical shape like a corkscrew and fairly rigid bodies
Can have many shapes, not just one.
A complete, intact, infectious virus
A virus that infects bacterial cells.
An infectious agent consisting of a self replicating protein, with no detectable nucleic acids.
A resting structure formed inside some bacteria
Know the structural makeup of a typical virus
A virion is a complete, fully developed, infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid that is composed of small protein sub-units called capsomeres, which protect it from the environment and is a vehicle of transmission for one host cell to another. Viruses are classified by differences in the structures of these coats.
Know how prions work and examples of diseases caused in humans
Diseases are caused by the conversion of a normal host glycoprotein into an infectious form. The human diseases known are Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Straussler- Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia.
Name the 4 major organic compounds necessary to maintain life of all organisms, the major functions and the monomer of each.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
major functions: Deoxyribose is a building block of DNA, other sugars are needed for cell walls. Simple carbs are used in synthesis of amino acids and fats or fat-like substances which are used to build cell membranes and other structures. Function as food reserves. Principal function if to fuel cell activities with a ready source of energy.
Major functions: Lipids are essential to the structure and function of membranes that separate living cells from their environment. Provides the structure of membranes and some cell walls and function in energy storage.
major functions: Essential ingredients in all aspects of a cells structure and function. Enzymes (help speed up reactions) Transporter proteins help transport chemicals into and out of cells. Bacteriocins kill other bacteria, certain exotoxins are proteins, some play a role in the contraction of animal muscle cells and the movement of microbial and other types of cells. Other proteins are integral parts of cell structures such as walls, cytoplasmic components, membranes, etc. Hormones are certain proteins with regulatory functions.
Major functions: DNA, RNA were first discovered in the nuclei of cells so they are referred to as nucleic acids.
self feeders have their own carbon source. C02
feeders on others require an organic carbon source.
An organism requiring oxygen for growth
An organism that can grow with or without oxygen
An organism that does not use oxygen and is killed in the presence of it.
An organism that grows best in an environment with less oxygen than is normally found in air
All synthesis reactions in a living organism, the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones
All decomposition reactions in a living organism, the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones.
A decomposition reaction in which chemicals react with the H- and OH- of a water molecule.
A chemical reaction in which two or more atoms combine to form a new larger molecule
An organism that grows best at about 15 degrees C, and does not grow above 20 degrees C, a cold loving microbe.
An organism that grows between about 10 degrees C and 50 degrees C; a moderate temperature loving microbe
An organism whose optimum growth temperature is between 50 and 60 degrees C, a heat loving microbe.
Briefly describe the function of enzymes and the factors which affect the proper functioning of enzymes.
Enzymes catalyze most metabolic reactions, reducing the amount of activation energy required to start them. Factors that influence proper functioning are:
A non-protein substance that is associated with and that activates an enzyme
List the requirements for microbial growth
Describe the basic process of glycolysis and the net number of ATP's generated
A six carbon sugar is phosphorylated down into two 3-carbon compounds by use of 2 ATP. The two 3-carbon molecules are oxidized in several steps to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, while 4 molecules of ATP are formed by substrate level phosphorylation. So net gain is 2 ATP
Compare and contrast aerobic, anaerobic respiration and fermentation.
Aerobic- 36 ATP, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETC, final electron acceptor is oxygen.
Briefly describe how ATP generates energy
ATP stores energy derived from catabolic reactions and releases it later to drive anabolic reactions and perform other cellular work. When the terminal phosphate group is split from ATP, ADP is formed and energy is released to drive anabolic reactions. ATP= ADP + P + energy, then the energy from catabolic reactions is used to combine ADP and a P to re-synthesize ATP. ADP + P + energy = ATP. Thus anabolic reactions are coupled to ATP breakdown and catabolic reactions are coupled to ATP synthesis.
Describe the differences between DNA and RNA
1. DNA is double stranded- 2 strands of alternating sugars and phosphates with nitrogen bases. RNA is single stranded.
Review the 4 stages of the microbial growth curve
1. Lag phase: Period of little or no cell division. Can last for 1 hour or several days.
Define and describe phenotype, genotype
Phenotype: The actual, expressed properties, such as hair color.
The original strand and a newly synthesized daughter strand, one old and one new.
DNA fragments that are strictly cytoplasmic or extra-chromosomal. Plasmids can also be transferred during conjugation. A specific example of a plasmid is the R factor plasmid. This type has genes the designate the resistance to certain antibiotics.
Define Missense, nonsense, and frame-shift mutations
Missense: A mutation that results in the substitution of an amino acid in a protein
Crossing over, transformation, conjugating, and transduction
Crossing over: when 2 chromosomes exchange their DNA.
F+ Bacteria have a fertility factor that can be transmitted to recipient cells. Donor cells are male (F+). F- bacteria lack fertility factor but can receive it from a male (F+) during conjugation.
This process involves human intervention in which genes are taken from one organism and transferred into another.
Briefly summarize protein synthesis
1. Components needed to being, come together
List the body's 3 major lines of defense, describe them. Know which are nonspecific immunity and which are specific immunity.
First line of defense: nonspecific- innate immunity, skin, mucous membranes and their secretions, and normal microbiota.
Briefly summarize the mechanism of the humoral response.
Humoral response (antibody mediated) response is carried out by antibodies produced by B cells. In humoral immunity, the bodys lymphocytes produce antibodies, which bind to antigens and label it for destruction... In a sense the body is attacking from a distance, making antibodies and sending them out...
In Cell mediated, the cells patrol the body directly (like the police) looking for bad cells and destroy them directly... they do not produce antibodies
Name and describe the functions of the 5 types of antibodies
1. IgG- most abundant class of antibodies in serum, fix complement
Briefly describe the inflammatory response
Histamine is released from basophils. Histamine causes area blood vessels to dilate and leak out neutrophils. Fluids leak out with neutrophils causing swelling and pain as pressure build on local nerve endings. Swelling, pain, redness and area temperature are the cardinal signs of inflammation. wants to destroy pathogen, or limit ifs effects on body by walling if off, and wants to replace or repair tissue. Diapedesis- when phagocytes squeeze through cells of blood vessels to reach damaged area.
List the 3 types of complement activation
Classic pathway- c1 splits into c2a and c2b, and c4 into c4a and c4b. C2a and C4b combine and activate C3, splitting into C3a and C3b
Study summary Chart
7-8 in book
General characteristics of humoral and delayed hypersensitivity reactions
Humoral- immediate, antibody mediated, involving B cells. Usually the response to the shocking dose of allergen occurs within minutes, but can occur from seconds to 24 hours in most cases, a few reactions can take several days. 3 types of immediate reactions.
Transmission: Blood injection, organ transplants, sex, to babies from nursing, and while in womb
A blood derived fluid containing antibodies
Matching antibodies with antigen
Define antibody titer and describe its use
Serial dilutions (1:20, 1:40, 1:80, etc) are made with the patients serum and saline solution. The last, highest dilution that produces a visible reaction, such as agglutination or precipitation.
Name and describe the 8 major categories of diagnostic tests
1. Precipitation: This type of reaction involves soluble antigens combining with homologous antibodies (IgG or IgM) to form large lattices or aggregates that precipitate out of solutions. The ratio must be optimal in order for the test to work
The degree to which a pathogen can cause disease
The presence of immunity in most of a population
The cause of disease
Microorganisms that normally reside in and on the body and contribute to the body's function and health, normally do not cause disease.
Present for a short period of time (days, months) but disappear or are eliminated by the body or normal microbiota
Normally not pathogenic as long as they remain in their normal habitat. In debilitated hosts, these pathogens man create infection or disease.
Science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations
Number of people affected by a disease in a given period of time in relation to total population
Number of deaths resulting from a disease in a population in a period of time relation to total population.
Know the classification of infectious diseases and how they can be transmitted
Definitions: Symptoms, signs, syndrome
Severity and duration of diseases:
Acute: one that develops rapidly but lasts only a short time
Intermediate between acute and chronic
Develops slowly, less severe, but likely to continue or reoccur for long periods of time
Causative agent remains inactive for a time but then becomes active to produce symptoms of disease
Extent of host involvement:
invading microorganisms are limited to a small area
spread throughout body
systemic infection that began in one place such as teeth, etc.
Stages of disease development
interval between initial infection and the first appearance of any signs or symptoms.
relatively short period that follows the period of incubation in some disease
disease is most severe with most severe signs or symptoms
Signs and symptoms decline. Vulnerable to secondary infections
Regains strength and the body returns to its pre-diseased state. recovery has occurred
Review how infections and diseases spread, including nosocomial infection
Reservoirs (human, animal, nonliving), transmission (direct, indirect, droplet, vehicle such as waterborne, foodborne or airborne), vectors (mechanical such as on insects feet, or biological such as an active process). required as a result of hospital stay by direct or indirect contact.
Distinguish the major differences between exotoxins and endotoxins
Exotoxins are made in certain bacteria and secreted into the environment. Many are lethal in small amounts. Can be produced by gram (-&+), they are specific and affect certain tissues only.
List the ways microbes can penetrate host defenses
Capsules, cell wall components, enzymes, antigenic variation.
The removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life
Destruction of vegetative pathogens
Removal of microbes from a limited area such as the skin around an injection site
Absence of significant contamination
List the 7 major methods of physical control and indicate which is the most effective
1. Heat disinfection (moist and dry) Dry heat such as incineration or flaming is most effective.
Describe the method of action and preferential uses for the following disinfectants and antiseptics:
Most effective, water is required for denaturing process, degerming, plasma membrane disruption
heavy metal- effective against diaper rash, found in mouth wash.
oxidizer, degrades h2o and o that can affect anaerobes. good disinfectant, poor antiseptic
Disinfectant for treatment of drinking water and pools. oxidizer. cidal.
iodine in alcohol= tincture of iodine
used in biopsy, embalming, protein denaturization
Ethylene oxide gas
sterilized materials that are damaged by heat or moisture that cannot be autoclaved, kills all microbes and endospores, requires large chambers. toxic and explosive in pure form.
Derived from coal tar, effective against mycobacterium, disinfecting pus, saliva, feces. used in Lysol.
used to disinfect respiratory equipment and embalming, cidex, protein denaturization, one of a few chemicals considered to be a sterilizing agent.
List the 5 major methods of action for antibiotics
1. Interference with Cell wall synthesis (cillins)
Name method of action for each of the following:
Interference with cell wall systhesis
Interference with cell membrane function
Inhibitor of protein synthesis
Interference with metabolism
Inhibition of Nucleic acid synthesis
List the 4 major mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance
1. Blocking entry