189 notecards = 48 pages (4 cards per page)
Interoceptors respond to stimuli ____
from internal organs
List the components of the lacrimal apparatus
lacrimal gland and lacrimal ducts
Receptors called _____ nerve endings consist of nerve fibers surrounded by glial cells or a connective tissue covering.
List the ossicles of the middle ear in order starting from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
Name the type of receptor that detects specific molecules.
Color blindness results from abnormality in or lack of ______, a type of photoreceptor protein.
Which of the following sensations result from input by exteroceptors?
Pain in the skin, touch, vision, and hearing
The ____ point of vision refers to the closest an object can be to the eyes and still be focused.
Describe endogenous opioids such as endorphins.
They are released by organs during states of stress or exercise.
The vestibular nerves lead to four vestibular nuclei that are located ____ and _____.
medulla oblongata and pons
The primary function of a sensory receptor:
Equilibrium refers to perception of:
balance, coordination, and orientation in space
______ is a sensation mediated by specialized receptors called nociceptors.
The photoreceptor cell only produces images in shades of gray, and is responsible for night vision:
Place the following events in the correct order.
Odorant molecules bing to receptors on olfactory hair
G protein is activated leading to the formation of cAMP
Ion channels open in the olfactory cell membrane
Influx of sodium or calcium ions, depolarizing the olfactory cell
Receptor potential is transmitted into the brain
Chose the three terms that describe senses that utilize receptors widely distributed throughout the body.
Somesthetic senses, somatosensory senses, and general senses
The ____ duct connects the lacrimal apparatus to the nasal cavity.
_____ is the visual pigment present in cones.
The _____ layer (tunic) of the eye contains the retina.
When eyes are focusing on far away objects, the eyes are in a state of ___
List the type of photoreceptor cells.
ganglion cells, cones, and rods
The tympanic membrane can also be referred to as the _____
Identify the fluid-filled cochlear chambers that contain perilymph.
scala vestibuli and scala tympani
Amplitude measures the _____ of a sound.
The visible bumps on the tongue are not taste buds but ___ papillae.
List the steps in order involved in generating a nerve signal within the macula utriculi and sacculi starting with movement of the head.
Tilt or acceleration of the head
Shift of the otolithic membrane
Identify the three regions of the vascular layer (tunic).
Ciliary body, choroid, and iris
Describe olfactory cells
Any audible vibration of molecules creates ______ and can be detected by one of your special senses
The sens of ____ is the perception of objects resulting from detection of the light they emit or reflect.
List the areas of the ear that function to transmit sound vibrations.
Outer and middle ear
Indicate which of the following are examples of sensory modalities.
hearing and vision
_____ senses utilize receptors that are specific to a particular area of the body.
Identify the range of frequency of light that is visible to the human eye.
A _________ is a receptor that is stimulated by touch, pressure, stretching, or vibration.
Order the sequence of events that stimulate the crista ampullaris.
Rotation of semicircular canals
Lagging behind of endolymph
Pressure on cupula
Identify the two sections of the fibrous layer of the eye.
cornea and sclera
A ______ is the conscious perception of a stimulus.
The _____ ducts of the inner ear detect acceleration.
____ is the sensation of taste that results from the action of chemicals stimulating the taste buds.
Name the type of receptor that detects pain.
List the components of the near response for close vision.
Constriction of the pupil, accommodation of the lens, and convergence of the eyes
The ____ ear is the area between the tympanic membrane an the oval window of the cochlea.
Name the function of the tympanic membrane.
transmit sound vibrations to the auditory ossicles
Pain that results from convergent neutral pathways that leads to visceral pain mistakenly thought to originate from the skin is called ______ pain.
Identify the two components of rhodopsin, the visual pigment found in rods.
retinal and opsin
Identify the significance the sensory projection pathway.
the ability to discern a specific area of stimulus on a receptor
The ________ is the translucent anterior section of the fibrous layer of the eye while _____ is the white of the eye
An area of tissue called the olfactory ____ contains the sensory epithelium for olfaction in the nose.
Death of hair cells results in a type of deafness called _____ deafness.
List the neural components of the eye.
retina and optic nerve
______ sense the position and movements in body parts
The receptive field is the _____
area of stimulus detected by a single sensory neuron
Describe the external acoustic meatus.
external opening of the auditory canal
The _____ within the eye is actually part of the diencephalon of the brain.
By definition, _______ is the bending of light rays as they pass through objects of different density.
Which of the following sensations result from input by interoceptors?
visceral pain and bladder pressure
A ___ refers to any structure capable of detecting a stimulus.
Identify the modality that triggers photoreceptors.
A(n) _________ is a substance or mechanism that has pain relieving properties.
Starting with the optic nerve, list the steps in conduction of a nerve impulse from the eyes to the brain.
Hemidecussation in optic chaism
Processing in lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus
Primary visual cortex in occipital lobe
Axons from hair cells of the spiral organ form the ________ nerve
Which site contains the most taste buds?
The _____ extends from the external acoustic meatus through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane.
Identify the four types of information transmitted by sensory receptors.
modality, intensity, location, and duration
_____ is a protective, sticky secretion of the ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the ear canal which waterproofs the ear canal and inhibits bacterial growth
Sensory receptors may be accompanied by accessory tissues that facilitate transduction of a stimulus, together forming a:
Stereoscopic vision provides for:
The _______ layer is the outermost tunic of the eye.
Which of the following are examples of somesthetic senses?
pressure, touch, stretch, and pain
Place the following events in order starting with the vibration of the oval window and ending with the depolarization of hair cells.
Increased pressure in perilymph of scala vestibuli
Pressure wave depresses basilar membrane
Inner hair cells move closer to tectorial membrane
Tip-link proteins open K+ channels
K+ ions enter hair cells causing depolarization
______ is the result or irregularity of the lens or cornea of the eye which prevents the ability to focus on light rays that enter on different planes.
Identify the three modalities detected by free nerve endings.
nociceptors, cold receptors, and pain receptors
Name the three components of the vestibular apparatus.
semicircular ducts, utricle, and saccule
The _____ is the opening within the iris of the eye
The ____ chamber of the eye is located between the iris and the lens.
____ are spots of sensory epithelium within the utricle and saccule
A _____ is a variable change in membrane voltage produced by a stimulus acting on a receptor cell which will generate an action potential upon reaching threshold.
Describe how the location of a stimulus is determined.
by which nerve fibers send the signal to the brain
Looking at the anterior view of the eye through the palpebral fissure, list the parts of the eye that are visible.
sclera, pupil, iris, and cornea
_______-order fibers carry somatosensoy information from the head to the brainstem
Identify the two characteristics of a tonic receptor.
adapts slowly to a stimulus and steady, prolonged nerve signal
The _____ membranes of the maculae sacculi and utricli are important in sensing gravity and motion
The _____ extends from the external acoustic meatus through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane
The olfactory ______ carry sensory information from the olfactory bulbs to the primary olfactory cortex.
Taste cells within taste buds are what type of cell?
List some characteristic of the conjunctiva
a thin transparent membrane, a mucus membrane, and highly vascularized
Identify the three types of cones
short, medium, and long wavelength
Explain the function of the stapedius and the tensor tympani
reduce the amplitude of sounds
_______ cells are first-order neurons that synapse with photoreceptors.
Spinal gating is the blockage of pain signals from nociceptors at the ______ horn of the spinal cord
The lens is located in between the _____ and ______. Identify two structures below.
vitreous humor and posterior chamber
_______ is the serous fluid secreted by the ciliary body that fills the anterior cavity of the eye
A _________ is a receptor that responds to temperature
The suspensory ligament attaches the ________ of the eye to the ciliary body
_______ equilibrium refers to the perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary
Identify the effects of light exposure on rhodopsin
cis-retinal converted to trans isoform and retinal and opsin separate
Macula utriculi are oriented ______ on the floor of the utricle
The vitreous body, or humor, is a jelly-like substance located between the
lens and the retina
By definition, _____ is the reduced ability to accomodate for near vision that commonly occurs with aging
Identify the receptors that are unencapsulated nerve endings
hair receptors, free nerve endings, and tactile (merkel discs)
The ___ muscles of the eye are responsible or eye movement
_______ is a batericidal enzyme found in he tears and other body secretions
The ______ tube is a flattened tube which, when opened by actions such as yawning or swallowing, equalizes pressure in the tympanic cavity
Tears are produced by the ____ gland
The comparison of signals from both the right and left ears that allows for the identification of the direction from which a sound is coming is called
List some characteristics of the perception of taste
depends upon food molecules dissolving in mucus, is influenced by the combination of five primary receptors stimulated, and is influenced by factors such as aroma, texture, and temperature
Identify the four modalities detected by lamellar (pacinian) corpuscles
tickle, deep pressure, vibration, and stretch
The duration of a stimulus is encoded as
the duration of how long a stimulus lasts
Name the structure that connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear
Half of the fibers from each optic nerve cross over to the opposite side of the brain. The term for half cross over is _______
Name the cranial bone that contains the body (osseous) labyrinth
The three visual pigments found in the ______ cells allow us to perceive different colors
Describe the location of the olfactory tracts
underneath the frontal lobe
Identify the three characteristics of the choroid
part of the vascular tunic (layer), contains numerous capillaries, and highly pigmented
Identify some naturally occurring analgesics (endogenous opiods)
enkephalins, endoprhins, and dynorphins
Identify the types of encapsulated nerve endings responsible for detecting light touch and texture
tactile (meissner) courpuscles and end bulbs
The myoepithelial cells within the pupillary dilator are innervated by the _____ nervous system
Similar to tactile corpuscles, which moalities are detected by end bulbs (krause corpuscles)?
light touch and texture
Individuals with ______ have difficulty focusing on objects that are further away
Name the area of the retina that is lacking photoreceptors and is therefore referred to as the "blind spot"
______ is the conversion of one form of energy to another. In biological terms it is the conversion of external stimuli into a nerve signal
Hair cells of the spiral organ are what type of cell?
The ______ epithelium of the retina absorbs stray light
The crista ampullarius is comprised of receptors that detect ______ equilibrium
Which unencapsulated nerve endings would be most likely to be the first to sense the presence of a mosquito on your arm
The pupillary constrictor muscle is stimulated by the ______ nervous system
_______ corpuscles consist of flattened elongated capsules capable of detecting heavy touch, stretching of the skin and joint movement
The ________ organ of the inner ear converts vibrations into nerve impulses
The perception of color vision is based upon the
mixture of signals from short, medium, and long wavelength cones
Name the six extrinsic eye muscles
lateral rectus, medial rectus, superior oblique, superior rectus, inferior rectues, and inferior oblique
Sensory adaptation refers to the ____ in perceived sensation over time despite the continuation of the stimulus
The ciliary body is part of the ______ tunic of the eye
Having two eyes with overlapping visual fields provides for
depth perception and stereoscopic vision
An apocrine sweat gland secretion contains compounds called ______ that may affect human sexual behavior
The ____ is stimulated by rotational acceleration
Identify the modalities detected by tactile (merkel) discs
light touch and pressure
The taste buds located on the vallate papillae in the back of the mouth are most sensitive to which taste?
_____ is the most potent stimulant of pain receptors (nociceptors).
Pitch is expressed in
An area with a higher two-point touch discrimination will have a _____ number o receptor fields
The ______ nuclei are located on either side of the pons and medulla oblongata, and serve to process signals regarding position and movement of the body
First-order somatosensory fibers carrying signals from below the head enter the central nervous system at the level of the
The portion of the retina that produces the greatest visual acuity (sharpness of image) is the ______. It is located within a patch of cells posterior to the center of the lens is called the ______.
fovea centralis an macula lutea
____-order fibers carry information from the brainstem to the contralateral side of the thalamus
Identfity the two nerves that send motor fibers to the tensor tympani and stapeius muscles
V3 and VII
Describe the projection of pain occurring in the head
first-order neurons synapse with second order neurons in the medulla
second-order neurons ascend to the thalamus where they synapse third order neurons
third-order neurons convey signals from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex
Sensory receptors that are "naked" sensory dendrites, lacking connective tissue coverings, are referred to as _____ receptors. They include free nerve endings, tactile (merkel) discs, and hair receptors
The central pillar of bone within the cochlea of the inner ear is called the _____
Name the photoreceptor cell type that functions to regulate pupil diameter and circadian rhythms
____ pain is the pain that results from stretch receptors, chemical irritants or ischemia to the abdominal organs
The retina is examined with an _____ which illuminates and magnifies the retina
_____ cells demonstrate extensive neural convergence resulting in spatial summation, useful for low light vision
The _____ reflex refers to the ability of both pupils to respond to the intensity of the light
The transformation of cis-retinal to trans-retinal after absorption of light is called ______
List some properties of descending analgesic fibers
block pain signals from traveling up the cord to the brain and induce the release of enkephalins by spinal interneurons
Identify the function of the scleral venous sinus
reabsorbs aqueous humor
The visual adjustment that is made when you go from a dark or dimly lit area to a brighet area is called _____ adaptation
Cones are capable of acute color perception because their signal ____ experience extensive neural convergence when synapsing with bipolar cells
Red-green color blindness is a _____-linked recessive trait
_____ and amacrine cells from horizontal connections between rods, cones, and bipolar cells
Within somatosensory projection pathways, most third-order fibers synapse with the second-order fibers in the
Identify the cranial nerves involved in collecting sensory information from taste buds
vagus (CN X), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and facial (CN VII)
The _____ membrane separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli
Odorant molecules stimulate olfactory cells via
Pain fibers that are _____ conduct signals 12-30 m/sec and produce fast (first) pain
The _____ version of retinal is bound to opsin until exposure to light
The _____ hair cells of the spiral organ adjust the response of the cochlea to various pitches of sound
Identify the fluid which fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
Pain fibers that are ____ conduct impulses that travel 0.5-2 m/sec and produce the slow (second) pain
The area of the brain responsible for identification and discrimination of odors is the area of the cerebral cortex called the ____ cortex
Describe the location of the paired olfactory bulbs
beneath the frontal lobes of the brain
Within the olfactory bulb, olfactory fibers synapse with dendrites of these two types of neurons
mitral cells and tufted cells
Each olfactory glomerulus can respond to ____ odorant moleculues
Cochlear tuning is a function of the ____ hair cells
Which of the following is the projection pathway for pain from below the neck responsible for carrying most of the somatic pain information?
By definition, ____ is double vision resulting from failure of convergence
Human ears are most sensitive to frequencies within which range?
1500 to 5000 Hz
Constriction of the pupil facilitates focusing of an image by the lens because:
lenses cannot refract light at their edges
The cochlea is capable of discerning differences in the loudness of stimuli because specific amplitude of sound
causes variation of vibration through out the entire cochlea
Identify the most abundant lingual papillae
The tarsal glands secrete _____ that coats the eye and reduce evaporation
Identify the superior chamber of the cochlea
The ora serrata is a point of attachment for the ____ to the interior of the eye wall
Aqueous humor is reabsorbed from the anterior chamber into the blood via the
scelral venous sinus
Identify the type of lingual papillae that do not contain taste buds
Name the structure of the eye that secreted an oil that reduces tear evaporation
Identify the projection pathway for pain below the neck responsible for eliciting the emotional response to pain including fear and nausea
The cochlea is capable of discerning difference in the pitch of sound because different frequencies of sound
vibrate different areas of the basilar membrane which stimulates different positions along the spiral organ