49 notecards = 13 pages (4 cards per page)
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs _____.
The electron transport chain _____.
A cell has enough available ATP to meet its needs for about 30 seconds. What is likely to happen when an athlete exhausts his or her ATP supply?
New biosensors, applied like a temporary tattoo to the skin, can
alert serious athletes that they are about to "hit the wall"
and find it difficult to continue exercising. These biosensors monitor
lactate, a form of lactic acid, released in sweat during strenuous
Which of the listed statements describes the results of the following
Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, the carbon skeleton of glucose has been broken down to CO2 with some net gain of ATP. Most of the energy from the original glucose molecule at that point in the process, however, is in the form of _____.
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
In its mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to _____.
In autumn, the leaves of deciduous trees change colors. This is because chlorophyll is degraded and _____.
In a plant, the reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O2) take place in _____.
What would be the expected effect on plants if the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled?
Suppose a plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment and the leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are absorbed by this pigment?
Why are there several structurally different pigments in the reaction centers of photosystems?
Cells from advanced malignant tumors often have very abnormal chromosomes and an abnormal number of chromosomes. What might explain the association between malignant tumors and chromosomal abnormalities?
Motor proteins require which of the following to function in the movement of chromosomes toward the poles of the mitotic spindle?
In eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are composed of _____.
Metaphase is characterized by _____.
MPF is a dimer consisting of _____.
Kinetochore microtubules assist in the process of splitting centromeres by _____.
The M-phase checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle. If this does not happen, cells would most likely be arrested in _____.
Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell
divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?
At which phase are centrioles beginning to move apart in animal
If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many
chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?
Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the Pacific yew tree. In
animal cells, Taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to
microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein
precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically,
Taxol must affect
During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?
Which of the following is released by platelets in the vicinity of an
Which of the following triggers the cell's passage past the G₂
checkpoint into mitosis?
For a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells,
which of the following is most desirable?
Which of the following does not occur during mitosis?
The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin. Which of the
following aspects of the cell cycle would be most disrupted by
Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship
between photosynthesis and respiration?
In photosynthetic cells, synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic
mechanism occurs during
Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have
antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do
they have in plants?
A flask containing photosynthetic green algae and a control flask
containing water with no algae are both placed under a bank of lights,
which are set to cycle between 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark.
The dissolved oxygen concentrations in both flasks are monitored.
Predict what the relative dissolved oxygen concentrations will be in
the flask with algae compared to the control flask.
Why are C₄ plants able to photosynthesize with no apparent
Compared to C₃ plants, C₄ plants
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what
When a molecule of NAD⁺ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a
hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes
The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO₂ and water is -686
kcal/mol and the free energy for the reduction of NAD⁺ to NADH is +53
kcal/mol. Why are only two molecules of NADH formed during glycolysis
when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed?
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products
of glycolysis are
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
During aerobic respiration, H₂O is formed. Where does the oxygen atom
for the formation of the water come from?
The synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy
released by movement of protons across the membrane down their
electrochemical gradient, is an example of
Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation) occurs in
In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be
catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate (1)
loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO₂, (2) is
oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and (3) is
bonded to coenzyme A.