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front 1 Mendel performed many types of crosses, including those in which the same genotypes are crossed but the sexes of the parents are switched. These are known as A) replicate crosses. B) reciprocal crosses. C) test crosses. D) monohybrid crosses. E) dihybrid crosses. | back 1 B.) Reciprocal crosses. |

front 2 Crosses in which F1 plants heterozygous for a given allele are crossed to generate a 3:1 phenotypic ratio in the F2 generation are known as - A) replicate crosses.
- B) reciprocal crosses.
- C) test crosses.
- D) monohybrid crosses.
- E) dihybrid crosses.
| back 2 D.) Monohybrid Crosses |

front 3 In peas, the round allele is dominant over the wrinkled allele. If a plant with round peas is crossed to a plant with wrinkled peas, all of the resulting plants have round peas. What is the genotype of the parents in this cross? A) B) C) D) E) | back 3 A.) |

front 4 In peas, the yellow allele is dominant over the green allele. If a plant with yellow peas is crossed to a plant with green peas, the resulting plants are 50% yellow and 50% green. What is the genotype of the parents in this cross? A) B) C) D) E) | back 4 C.) |

front 5 Assuming independent assortment, what phenotypic ratio would you expect to see if an individual with the genotype RrGg is self-crossed? A) 1:3 B) 9:3:3:1 C) 1:2:1 D) 1:3:2:1 E) 3:1 | back 5 B) 9:3:3:1 |

front 6 What genotypic ratio would you expect to see among the progeny of a monohybrid cross? A) 1:3 B) 9:3:3:1 C) 1:2:1 D) 1:3:2:1 E) 3:1 | back 6 C) 1:2:1 |

front 7 A couple has four children. What is the probability that they would have four boys? A) 1/2 B) 1/4 C) 1/8 D) 1/16 E) 1/32 | back 7 D) 1/16 |

front 8 Humans have a gene, "T," that is involved in muscle formation of the tongue. Individuals with the one allele can roll their tongues, while individuals with the other allele cannot. If both parents can roll their tongues, but their child cannot, what can be said about the mode of inheritance? A) Tongue rolling is dominant. B) Tongue rolling is recessive. C) The parents were both homozygous, but the child was heterozygous. D) Tongue rolling is dominant, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt). E) Tongue rolling is recessive, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt). | back 8 D) Tongue rolling is dominant, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt). |

front 9 In peas, axial ( A) 3/64 B) 9/64 C) 27/64 D) 32/64 E) 64/64 | back 9 C) 27/64 |

front 10 In peas, axial ( A) 9/16 B) 4/16 C) 3/16 D) 2/16 E) 1/16 | back 10 B) 4/16 |

front 11 The law of segregation states that the F2 progeny of F1 heterozygous plants will exhibit A) a 3:1 phenotypic ratio. B) a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio. C) a 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. D) a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. E) both a 3:1 phenotypic ratio and a 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. | back 11 E) both a 3:1 phenotypic ratio and a 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. |

front 12 The law of independent assortment would predict that the F2 progeny of F1 heterozygous plants will exhibit a A) 3:1 phenotypic ratio. B) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio. C) 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. D) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. E) 3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio. | back 12 B) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio. |

front 13 What phenotypic ratio would you expect as a result of a test cross between a dihybrid organism and one that is homozygous recessive for alleles at two independent loci? A) 3:1 B) 1:2:1 C) 1:1:1:1 D) 9:3:3:1 E) 9:4:2:1 | back 13 C) 1:1:1:1 |

front 14 How many possible gametes can be produced by a short plant with
yellow, round peas with a heterozygous genotype ( A) 3 B) 6 C) 8 D) 10 E) 12 | back 14 C) 8 |

front 15 By convention, when the difference between the A) within normal expected range. B) statistically significantly and different from the expected outcome. C) not significant. D) less than one standard deviation from the mean. E) equal to the mean. | back 15 B) statistically significantly and different from the expected outcome. |

front 16 The statistical interpretation of a chi-square value is determined by identifying the A) mean. B) degrees of freedom. C) average. D) E) joint probability. | back 16 D) |

front 17 The P value is a quantitative expression of the probability that the
results of another experiment of the same size and structure will
A) the lower the χ2 value and the lower the B) the greater the χ2 value and the greater the C) the greater the χ2 value and the lower the D) the lower the χ2 value and the greater the E) the greater the χ2 value; but the | back 17 C) the greater the χ2 value and the lower the |

front 18 The statistical interpretation of a chi-square value is determined by
identifying the A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 | back 18 E) 5 |

front 19 The genes responsible for some of the traits that Mendel observed
have been recently identified and have helped in determining how
molecular variation produces morphologic variation in pea plants.
Allelic variation in the A) round and wrinkled pea shape B) yellow and green pea color C) purple and white flowers D) tall and short plant height E) axial and terminal flower position | back 19 A) round and wrinkled pea shape |

front 20 In 1997, a gene called A) inflated and constricted pod shape B) yellow and green pod color C) purple and white flowers D) tall and short plant height E) axial and terminal flower position | back 20 D) tall and short plant height |

front 21 Mendel performed numerous controlled genetic crosses to obtain strains that consistently produced a single phenotype without variation. What are these strains that consistently produce the same phenotype called? | back 21 Answer: pure-breeding or true-breeding strains |

front 22 In a test cross, a pure-breeding plant is crossed with a plant
suspected to be heterozygous ( | back 22 Answer: |

front 23 Why did Mendel cut off the nascent anthers during the process of artificial cross-fertilization? | back 23 Answer: to prevent self-fertilization or to prevent uncontrolled crosses |

front 24 What simple type of cross that looks at the inheritance of only one trait could be used to illustrate Mendel's law of segregation? | back 24 Answer: monohybrid cross |

front 25 If an affected individual is born to parents who are unaffected, what is the likely mode of inheritance? | back 25 Answer: autosomal recessive |

front 26 What type of cross would be used to illustrate Mendel's law of independent assortment? | back 26 Answer: dihybrid cross (or test cross) |

front 27 A cross between a short pea plant and a tall pea plant results in a
1:1 genotypic | back 27 Answer: |

front 28 What is the probability of rolling one six-sided die and obtaining a 1 or a 2? | back 28 Answer: 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/6 = 1/3 |

front 29 What is the probability of rolling one six-sided die and obtaining any number but 6? | back 29 Answer: 1 - 1/6 = 5/6 |

front 30 What is the probability of rolling two six-sided dice and obtaining two 4s? | back 30 Answer: 1/6 × 1/6 = 1/36 |

front 31 What is the probability of rolling two six-sided dice and obtaining at least one 3? | back 31 Answer: (1/6) + (5/6)(1/6) = 6/36 + 5/36 = 11/36 |

front 32 What is the probability of rolling two six-sided dice and obtaining an odd number on at least one die? | back 32 Answer: 9/36 + 9/36 + 9/36 = 27/36 = 3/4 Prob. of rolling odd number the 1st roll only = 3/6 (odd) × 3/6 (even) = 9/36 Prob. of rolling odd number the 2nd roll only = 3/6 (even) × 3/6 (odd) = 9/36 Prob. of rolling odd number both rolls = 3/6 (odd) × 3/6 (odd) = 9/36 Prob. of any one of these three possible scenarios = addition rule |

front 33 When calculating the probability of a given genotype in a trihybrid cross, you can generate a Punnett square. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the joint probability of simultaneous inheritance of multiple alleles? | back 33 Answer: the product rule |

front 34 In a cross between individuals who are both heterozygous (carriers) for a recessive disease such as albinism, you would like to determine the risk of one or more children to inherit the recessive phenotype. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the probability of a particular combination of events that each have two alternative outcomes? | back 34 Answer: binomial probability |

front 35 You have self-fertilized a plant with round seed that is heterozygous, and you want to determine what proportion of the offspring will be not only dominant, but true-breeding. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the probability of obtaining a particular outcome when specific information about that outcome modifies the probability calculation? | back 35 Answer: conditional probability |

front 36 In a dihybrid cross, you want to calculate the probability that an F2 progeny of the cross will inherit both dominant phenotypes. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the probability of obtaining that combination of alleles? | back 36 Answer: the product rule |

front 37 The statistical value obtained from the chi-square analysis refers to the probability that the deviations of between the observed numbers and the expected numbers are caused by what? | back 37 Answer: random chance |

front 38 A normal distribution curve contains all the possible experimental outcomes in graph form. The tall central segment of the curve represents the outcomes with the highest probability of occurrence. The average outcome, represented by the center of the data distribution, is known as what? | back 38 Answer: the mean (µ) |

front 39 The probability of experimental outcomes gets smaller toward the farthest left and right portions of the curve. The probability of a given observation compared to all possible outcomes is known as what? | back 39 Answer: the standard deviation (σ) |

front 40 Geneticists must be able to compare the outcomes they obtain in their experiments to the outcomes that might be expected to occur. Which test would they use to confirm that the difference between observed and expected can be attributed to chance? | back 40 Answer: chi-square test |

front 41 One key to Mendel's success was choosing to observe ________ traits, which exhibit one of two possible phenotypes. | back 41 Answer: dichotomous |

front 42 The hereditary particles that are passed from one generation are
called | back 42 Answer: elementen |

front 43 A ratio of 9:3:3:1 is expected among the F2 progeny of a dihybrid cross as a result of ________ of alleles at two loci. | back 43 Answer: independent assortment |

front 44 Binomial expansion is a complex genetic calculation requiring
repetition and precision in the use of the product rule and the sum
rule. A shortcut called ________ eliminates the need for these
repetitive calculations and can be used for any number of expansions
between 0 and the | back 44 Answer: Pascal's triangle |

front 45 The | back 45 Answer: degrees of freedom (df) |