66 notecards = 17 pages (4 cards per page)
Which of the following lipids is used for energy storage?
Compared to vegetable oil, beef fat is has a higher proportion of
Which of the following is true for biological membranes?
The fluidity of the lipid in the interior of a bilayer is generally increased by:
Lipid molecules are said to be amphipathic, when
other part hydrophilic (polar).
Triacylglycerols are NOT found in cell membranes because they are
Integral membrane proteins are proteins that
Facilitated diffusion (passive transport) through a biological membrane is
Which of the following transport processes requires no energy?
Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding the oxidation of fatty acids by the b-
In animal cells, where does fatty acid synthesis occur?
Fatty acids are activated to acyl-CoAs and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine
Fatty acids are oxidized in the ______.
Which of the following compounds serves to transport excess ammonia from muscle to liver
for urea synthesis?
Which of the following best defines an essential amino acid?
At the subcellular level where does the urea cycle occur?
The carbon skeletons for amino acid biosynthesis are derived from intermediates in all of the
Urea synthesis in mammals via urea cycle takes place in tissues of the:
Early in your chemistry career, you probably spilled some sodium hydroxide on your hands
and noticed that bases feel soapy. The soapy feeling is caused by:
Transamination reactions require which coenzyme?
Alanine is NOT classified among the essential amino acids because:
Which of the following lipoprotein particles are indicative of “good” cholesterol?
Which of the following lipoprotein particles are indicative of “bad” cholesterol?
High levels of cholesterol in the blood can lead to
In order to synthesize fatty acids, acetyl-CoA is shuttled out of mitochondria as
Which two amino acids serve as the primary nitrogen donors for the biosynthesis of the other
Enzymes that digest the triacylglycerols into free fatty acids and monoacylglycerol are called
Cholesterol is not oxidized for energy within the body, but you might help eliminate it from
your body if you could increase the formation of:
How many rounds of b oxidation would be required for a 16-C fatty acyl chain to be degraded
The conversion of palmitoyl-CoA (16:0) to myristoyl-CoA (14:0) and 1 mol of acetyl-CoA by
the beta-oxidation pathway results in the net formation of:
Free fatty acids in the bloodstream are:
Cholesterol is synthesized from:
Which types of amino acids are ketogenic?
Glutamate can be synthesized directly from:
Nonessential amino acids:
If a person's urine contains unusually high concentrations of urea, which one of the following
diets has he or she probably been eating recently?
A)High carbohydrate, very low protein
The drug called lovastatin is now used to decrease plasma cholesterol levels by
inhibiting the rate-limiting step of cholesterol synthesis. This step is catalyzed by:
Each of the following statements are true for lipoproteins, EXCEPT.
transport in the blood.
Which of the following statements about cholesterol is FALSE?
Triacylglycerols contain three fatty acid molecules esterified to the three hydroxyl groups of
The principal site of cholesterol synthesis is:
In steady-state metabolism:
Unlike water-soluble hormones, steroid hormones act by:
The Cori cycle is:
from lactate in liver
from alanine in liver
Which of the following chemicals is NOT a second messenger?
How does the blood glucose level of diabetics tend to compare to "normal?"
Which of the following tissues CANNOT use free fatty acids from blood for energy but can
use ketone bodies as an energy source?
When blood glucose is abnormally high, the pancreas releases:
Of the two types of diabetes, which of the following situations is UNIQUE to type II
lower melting point
at least one double bonds
longer the chain =
less double bonds =
free fatty acids transported by
albumin in blood
membrane interior is
acetyl CoA must be attached to ______
to cross the inner mitochondrial membrane from cytosol
each trip through beta oxidation
looses and gains what?
looses 2 carbons
produces 1 NADH and 1 FADH2
fatty acid synthesis starts with _____ in the ____---
liver cytoplasm from the mitochondria via citrate transporter
cholesterol from diet
transfer of amino group from alpha AA to alpha keto acid
synthesis of AA in cytosol needs
nitrogen intermediates from metabolic pathways
ammonia from glutamate
Most other lipids (e.g. triacylglycerols, and cholesterol) are
transported in the blood as part of complex particles called
Membranes are composed of
1) lipids (amphipathic lipids: have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
2) proteins (integral and peripheral)
The interior of the membrane is fluid and hydrophobic
Hydrophobic (lipophilic) molecules can pass through a membrane’s
hydrophobic interior by
simple diffusion down the gradient
Polar or charged molecules require proteins to form passages
through the hydrophobic barrier
1) Passive transport (facilitated diffusion) takes place when an
ion or polar molecule moves down its concentration gradient
2) Active transport: energy source is required for moving a
molecule for moves against a concentration gradient e.g. the
Fatty acids are synthesized by the repetitive condensation
of two-carbon units originally derived from
acetyl-CoA in the cytosol that came from the mitochondria