18 notecards = 5 pages (4 cards per page)
Any organization that actively seeks to influence public policy.
Any group that exists primarily for economic purposes including making profits, providing jobs, improving pay, or protecting an occupation.
Most common economic group in America; more than half of all registered lobbyists work for these organizations.
Seek to promote policies that benefit workers in general and union members in particular.
Members joined together by a purposive incentive; non-economic.
Benefit, such as a job, that is given directly to an individual.
Private (Individual) Good
Goods that belong to all and cannot be distributed or withheld on an individual basis; incentive for membership.
Collective (Public) Goods
Individuals may obtain the good even if they do not contribute to the group's efforts.
Term that refers broadly to efforts by groups to influence public policy through direct contact with public officials.
Based on groups' efforts to maintain close (inside) contacts with policymakers.
Consists of small and informal but relatively stable set of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists who seek to develop policies beneficial to a particular interest.
Informal grouping of officials, lobbyists, and policy specialists who come together temporarily around a policy problem.
Involves bringing constituency pressure to bear on policymakers.
Pressure designed to convince government officials that a group's policy position has popular support.
Group through which anyone may take voluntary contributions from members or employees and then donate the money to its candidates.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
Independent Expenditure-Only Committees; not allowed to give money directly to candidates or parties, but are otherwise more or less free to spend as much as they want.
Tendency of officials to support the policy demands of the interest group or groups having special stake in a policy.
Groups that are organized around nearly every conceivable policy issue, with each group pressing its demands to the utmost through lobbying and other forms of political pressure.