26 notecards = 7 pages (4 cards per page)
Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?
Hyaline cartilage covers the ends of long bones as articular cartilage, providing springy pads that absorb compression at joints.
When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.
Interstitial growth occurs when chondrocytes divide and form new matrix, thereby expanding the cartilage tissue from within. (Note: the word inter means between, and stitial means space; these are common roots for anatomical terms.)
The axial skeleton includes the ________.
What type of bone is the patella?
The patella, kneecap, is a sesamoid bone, a special type of short bone that forms in tendons. It functions to alter the direction of pull of the tendon.
Bones do NOT have a role in ________.
Glycogen production (glycogenesis) is not a role of bone; it takes place primarily in muscle and liver cells.
Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?
The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support vital organs
The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.
From start to finish, a fracture is repaired by: (1) formation of a hematoma, (2) formation of a fibrocartilaginous callus, (3) formation of a bony callus, and (4) bone remodeling. Use the pneumonic HFBR (His Femur Better Repair!) to help you remember the order. H = hematoma, F = fibrocartilaginous callus, B = bony callus, R = remodeling.
Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?
PTH promotes the formation of which hormone?
Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?)
Correct. This answer is false. PTH would NOT increase osteoblasts. Osteoblasts store calcium on bone, thus lowering plasma calcium levels.
Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels?
Yes, parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates Vitamin D into calcitriol in the kidney. Calcitriol then increases absorption of calcium in the intestine.
During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.
During infancy and childhood the single most important stimulus for bone growth is growth hormone. It directly stimulates growth of the hyaline cartilage that forms the epiphyseal plates in long bones, causing the bones to lengthen.
The epiphyseal plate is ________.
the site of red bone marrow production
where long bone lengthening occurs
Long bones elongate from growth at the epiphyseal plate, a layer of hyaline cartilage between the epiphyses and diaphysis of long bones.
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
Which bone cells form bone?
are the bone-forming cells that produce the organic bone matrix, the osteoid. Mature bone is produced once the inorganic matrix forms around the cells and collagen fibers of the organic matrix.
What is osteoid?
is the organic part of the (extracellular) bone matrix and includes ground substance, composed of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, and collagen fibers.
In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.
in the medullary cavity of long bones
Functional classification of joints is based on ________.
the amount of movement allowed by the joint
Using the structural classification, what type of joint is the
The epiphyseal plate is a cartilaginous joint-a hyaline cartilage "growth plate" between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone.
What is the most important stabilizing factor for most synovial joints?
For most synovial joints, especially the knee and shoulder, the muscle tendons that cross the joint are the most important stabilizing factor. These tendons are kept taut at all times by muscle tone, constant, partial contraction of their muscles.
Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?
amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity
The amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity is not a factor that contributes to joint stability. The major role of synovial fluid is to lubricate the joint surfaces of freely movable (synovial) joints.
If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired,
the consequences could include the inability to prevent ________.
forward sliding of the tibia on the femur
The ACL extends from the anterior intercondylar notch of the femur to the anterior intercondylar eminence of the tibia. This ligament prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur.
To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a
physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order
to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone's ________.
Which joint in the body is most susceptible to sports injuries?
Of all body joints, the knees are most susceptible to sports injuries because of their high reliance on non-articular factors for stability and the fact that they carry the body's weight. The knee can absorb a vertical force equal to nearly seven times body weight. However, it is very vulnerable to horizontal blows, such as those that occur during blocking and tackling in football and in ice hockey.
Which inflammatory joint disease is caused by the bites of ticks that
live on mice and deer?
Lyme disease is an inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer. It often results in joint pain and arthritis.