81 notecards = 21 pages (4 cards per page)
Study of the urinary system
The urinary system consist of...
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, unrinary bladder, and urethra
What is the primary function of the urinary system?
To regulate the extracellular fluid in the body, through the production of the kidney filtrate.
What do the kidneys regulate?
1. blood volume
What are the 3 layers of tissue that support and protect the kidney?
renal fascia (outer layer), adipose tissue (middle layer), fibrous renal capsule (inner layer)
blood eventually drains from the peritubular capillaries into the ______ vein system and the ____ _____.
renal, vena cava
Capsule that surrounds the glomerulus
single layer of cuboidal cells whick promote reabsorption of salt, water, and other molecules back into the peritubular capillaries.
proximal convulated tubule
loop in the medulla of the kidney(descending and ascending loop)
nephron loop (Henle's loop)
conducts urine through a pyramid, into a calyx and the pelvis
these are within the visceral layer of the capsule and their cytoplasmic extentions, interdigitate with the glomerular capillaries
____________ proteins because of their large size and negative charge, don't leave the capillaries.
4 basic process of urine formation
1. glomeruli filtration
Most salt and water is reabsorbed by _______ from the proximal tubules
Reabsorption of water in the distal tubule and collecting duct is regulated by what hormones?
ADH and aldosterone
Na+ is actively transported for the filtrate to the ____________ capillaries wich allow osmosis to occur
Thin walled capillary loops that parallel the nephron loops-solutes are trapped a recirculated within the renal medulla, but water is tranported out
walls of collecting ducts are permiable to ____, but not to salt
What creates water channels within the walls of collecting ducts?
ADH is produced by the _________ and secreted from the ________?
hypothalamus, posterior pituatary
__________ in the hypthalamus detect increased salt concentration due to dehydration.
inadequate ADH, large volumes of dilute urine are excreted
What are the 3 layers of the ureter?
inner mucosa, muscularis, adventitia
This is located posterior to symphysis pubis and anterior to the rectum
folds of the urinary bladder which alow distention in the mucosa
layers of the bladder
mucosa, submucosa, musculairis, adventitia
The muscularis is composed of 3 muscle layers called the ____ _____.
This layer of the bladder appears only on the superior surface of the bladder; a contiuation of the peritoneum
voluntarty control of urine
what is normal urine production?
Normal bladder capacity is about ....
This center is located in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4rth sacral segments of the spinal cord?
micturition reflex center
inability to void or control urine
when output exceeds intake over a prolonged period is a called a _____ ______.
This disorder is when proportionate amounts of water and sodium are lost?
The body eliminates more water than Na+ and the ECF osmolarity rises is a deficiency called _____.
Important in maintaining fluid homeostasis;react chemically; and strongly affect osmolality
Removal of solutes from the blood either through the ______ filtrate or scretions through the ____ cells.
_______ is the opposite of reabsorption.
99% of filtered ______ is reabsorbed?
The volume of plasma from which a substance is removed in one minute is called ______ _____ _____.
renal plasma clearance
Urea is secreted by the _______ into the blood?
_______ is a waste product of amino acid metabolism.
Most of the glomerular blood passes unfiltered into the ________ arterioles and ______ capillaries.
Blood must make many passes through the ______ before a substance is completely cleared.
____ can be cleared from the blood in the kidneys in a single pass through.
PAH (para-aminohippuric acid)
waste product of muscle metabolism
glucose appears in urine because concentration exceeds carrier numbers
the minimum level in blood that results in excretion
renal plasma threshold
A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ and K+ plasma concentrations?
Na+ and K+ are important in _____ _____ and ______ ______.
blood volume, pressure regulation
K+ is also important in ______ and _______ muscle formation.
Aldosterone conversely stimulates secretion of ___ into the tubules.
Region where the afferent arteriole and distal convoluted in tubule come in contact.
Granular cells in the afferent arteriole secrete the hormone ______ which results in aldosterone secretion.
Due to low Na+ concentration stimulates renin secretion fron _____ ______.
This hormone stimultes salt excretion
Most important aspects of homeostasis
_______ are constantly produced metabolically
_______ resist changes in pH.
___________ can neutralize more acid or base than any other system.
Renal tubules secrete H+ ion into the ________ fluid where most is bound to ammonia and phosphate buffers and excreted as _______.
_________ are the only organs which excrete H+ ions.
below 7.35 pH
above 7.45 pH
kidneys increase H+ secretion in _________
________ acids are normally buffered by HCO3-
increase urine output
urine disorder in which their is paniful elimination.
Blood in urine?
Bateria in the urine?
Pus in urine?
inspection of urinary bladder with cytoscope
test for color, specific gravity, chemical composition, bacteria, crystals, and cast
accumulations of proteins that leaked through the glomeruli
Name some infections of urinary organs?
urethritis, cystitis, nephritis, pyelitis
blow to kidneys; straddle injuries; pelvic injuries to the bladder
stones, cyst, tumors
chronic and accute; can regenerate