31 notecards = 8 pages (4 cards per page)
Describe the anatomy of the Respiratory System
made up of two parts
Nose,Nasal Cavity,Pharynx,Larynx,Trachea Bronchi,Bronchioles,Terminal Bronchioles
Respiratory Bronchioles,Alveolar Ducts, Alveoli
What does the respiratory system do?
Differentiate between the respiratory zone and conducting zone organs. What do they do?
The conducting zone is the pathway that gets air down to the lungs, while the Respiratory zone is where gas exchange takes place.
List the pathway that an air molecule would take to get to an alveolus.
List the three divisions of the pharynx.
Describe the anatomy of the larynx, including the hyoid.
Describe tracheal histology.
Describe the bronchial tree.
The bronchial tree is an essential part of the respiratory system. It consists of several interacting structures, such as the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. These structures work together to provide a network system between the lungs and the trachea. Without this system, a person could not breathe properly.
they are the primary or bronchi, secondary or bronchioles, and tertiary.
splits 23 times getting smaller each time.
More smooth muscle present as it gets smaller.(bronchodialation/constriction)
terminal bronchial ends in smallest possible airway and it ends in a respritatory bronchiole. which is covered in alveoli which is where gas exchange takes place.
Describe how gas exchanges occur between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli
pulminary capilary linked to p vein.
Describe the anatomy of the respiratory membrane
The respiratory membrane consists of a single layer of simple squamous epithelium. one layer thick tunca intima - one layer on capillary wall one layer on aveolar wall so each together makes 2 layers of simple squamous cells.
what cavity contains the lungs?
thoracic pleural cavity
Describe the pleural membranes within the lungs.
Distinguish between atmospheric pressure (ATM) and intrapulmonary pressure.
Pressure recorded within the alveoli
Describe the two basic laws that influence air movement.
Intrapulmonary pressure is the pressure in the alveoli, which rises and falls during respiration, but always eventually equalizes with atmospheric pressure.
Intrapleural pressure is the pressure in the pleural cavity. It also rises and falls during respiration, but is always about 4 mm Hg less than intrapulmonary pressure.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Relates gas pressure to gas
The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the
pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.
Pressure is the force exerted on the wall of a container by the
particles contained within it.
The volume of gas that will go into solution at a given partial
pressure depends onto its solubility in the liquid (plasma) and
list and describe the 4 processes of respiration.
bringing air in and out
2. Gas Exchange pulmonary capillary and alveolus systemic capillaries and tissues
3Transport of Respiratory gases
4.Control of Respiration
What muscles are involved in inspiration and expiration?
1.Diaphragm, scalenes, external intercostals contract
2. Contraction:diaphragm drops intercostals/scalenes move
rib cage UP and OUT
3. Forced expiration: contraction abdominal muscles
3 factors that increase energy required to breathe.
1.Increase airway resistance
what factors could cause the increased energy required to breathe?
airway resistance- Blocked passageways: tumor, mucus Bronchiole constriction: parasympathetic stimulation via irritants or histamine
surface tension-water molecules sticking to the alveoli ir sac which cause it not to inflate (pnemonia)
decrease lung compliance- lungs cannot stretch like they should Compliance: Increased fibrosis, decrease in flexibility of thoracic cage, low surfactant
What is a surfactant and what does it do?
The remarkable property of the surfactant which coats the alveoli is that it reduces the surface tension by a factor of about 15 so that the 1 mmHg pressure differential is sufficient to inflate the alveoli.
describe and give the normal values for: TV,IRV,ERV,VC,RV,TLC
TV - 500ml
IRV - 3100 ml
ERV - 1200 ml
VC - 4800ml forced exhale TV+ERV+RV=
RV - 1200ml air left remaining in the lungs non exchangeable air
TLC - 6000 ml total amount of air exchangeable and non exchangeable.
compute minute or total ventilation
General measure of health: total ventilation rate
Compute alveolar ventilation rate and why is this preferred to minute or TV
AVR= deadspace times breaths per minute
AVR accounts for anatomical dead space
Very briefly describe Daltons law and Henrys law. List the composition of air.
Dalton’s law of Partial Pressures (Px mm Hg)-
✩ Dalton’s Law of partial pressures in a mixture of gases relates gas pressure to gas concentration. Slide 40/Pg 847
Henry’s law (Gas Solubility) Pg 824
✩ Henry’s Law at a liquid-gas interface relates gas dissolved in water to gas concentration, solubility, and temperature. Slide 40
22b. List the composition of air. Slide 40
Oxygen (O2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen (N2)
Describe the solubilities of CO2, O2, N2
Note: Less insoluble as temperature raises
Differentiate between external and internal respiration
External respiration is between lungs and blood concerning how O2 and CO2 are swapped:
Internal respiration is between the blood and tissue cells:
How is Oxygen (O 2 ) and
Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) each
transported around the body?and what are their preferred modes of transport
O2 - Carried in two ways:1. Dissolved in plasma ~ 1.5% 2. Bound to hemoglobin
Note: A Bicarbonate makes something “basic”.
CO2 travels through blood and O2 travels on Hb through blood.
How many O2 molecules can bind to 1 Hb molecule?
Up to 4 (4 is full)
Describe how changing PH and body temperature can affect the affinity of Hb for O2?
Describe the chloride shift
chloride shift. The movement of chloride ions from the plasma into red blood cells as a result of the transfer of carbon dioxide from tissues to the plasma, a process that serves to maintain blood pH.
describe the peripheral and central chemo-receptors and what they each each are measuring.
Peripheral Chemoreceptors sensitive to
Central Chemoreceptors sensitive to H+
Describe the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla
Medullary centers set the basic rhythm of inspiration /
Brainstem centers activate neurons leading to:
Diaphragm via phrenic nerves
Pontine centers modify rate and depth of breathing