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front 1 Tallies and cross-tabulations are used to summarize which of these variables types? A. Quantitative B. Mathematical C. Continuous D. Categorical | back 1 Answer: D |

front 2 Which one of these variables is a categorical variable? A. Number of ear pierces a person has B.Height of a person C. Weight of a person D. Opinion about legalization of marijuana | back 2 Answer: D |

front 3 Which one of the following variables is not categorical? A. Age of a person. B. Gender of a person: male or female. C. Choice on a test item: true or false. D.Marital status of a person (single, married, divorced, other) | back 3 Answer: A |

front 4 Which of the following is not a term used for a quantitative variable? A. Measurement variable B. Numerical variable C. Continuous variable D. Categorical variable | back 4 Answer: D |

front 5 Among 300 fatal car accidents, 135 were single-car crashes, 66 were two-car crashes, and 99 involved three or more cars. Calculate the relative frequency and percent of fatal car accidents by the number of cars involved. | back 5 Answer: Single car crashes 0.45 (45%); Two car crashes 0.22 (22%); Three car crashes 0.33 (33%). |

front 6 The EPA sends out a survey to learn about people’s water usage habits. Some of the questions included in the survey are given below. Q1. How many times a week do you take a shower? Q3. When you water your lawn, how long do you let the water run? For each question, determine if it leads to categorical responses or quantitative responses. | back 6 Answer: Q1 and Q3 lead to quantitative responses, while Q2 leads to categorical responses. |

front 7 The percent of data which lie between the lower and upper quartiles is A. 10%. B. 25%. C. 50%. D. 75%. | back 7 Answer: C |

front 8 A five-number summary for a data set is 35, 50, 60, 70, 90. About what percent of the observations are between 35 and 90? A. 25% B. 50% C. 95% D. 100% | back 8 Answer: D |

front 9 A five-number summary given in Case Study 1.1 for the fastest ever driving speeds reported by 102 women was: 30, 80, 89, 95, 130. What is the interquartile range of these data? A. 6 B. 9 C. 15 D. 100 | back 9 Answer: C |

front 10 A five-number summary given in Case Study 1.1 for the fastest ever driving speeds reported by 102 women was: 30, 80, 89, 95, 130. Fill in the blank in the following sentence: Approximately 25% of the women reported a fastest ever driving speed of at least _____ mph. A. 25 B. 80 C. 89 D. 95 | back 10 Answer: C |

front 11 A five-number summary given in Case Study 1.1 for the fastest ever driving speeds reported by 102 women was: 30, 80, 89, 95, 130. Fill in the blank in the following sentence: Approximately 25% of the women reported a fastest ever driving speed of at most _____ mph. A. 30 B. 80 C. 89 D. 95 | back 11 Answer: B |

front 12 In a survey, students are asked how many hours they study in a typical week. A five-number summary of the responses is: 2, 9, 14, 20, 60. Which interval describes the number of hours spent studying in a typical week for about 50% of the students sampled? A. 2to9 B. 9to14 C. 9 to 20 D. 14 to 20 | back 12 Answer: C |

front 13 In a survey, students are asked how many hours they study in a typical week. A five-number summary of the responses is: 2, 9, 14, 20, 60. Fill in the blank in the following sentence. About 75% of the students spent at least ____ hours studying in a typical week. A. 9 B. 14 C. 20 D. 45 | back 13 Answer: A |

front 14 Which of the following provides the most information about the shape of a data set? A.Boxplot B. Pie chart C. Five number summary D. Stem-and-leaf plot | back 14 Answer: D |

front 15 According to a national sleep foundation survey, around 31 million Americans are sleep deprived. They also say women need more sleep than men and are being short-changed. Below are the five number summaries for the number of hours of sleep at night based on a survey of American men and women. Men: 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7.5, 9 Women: 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8 Write a sentence to compare men versus women in terms of the median amount of sleep at night | back 15 Answer: The survey shows that the median about of sleep at night for women is 6 hours, about a half an hour less than that for men (which was 6.5 hours). |

front 16 According to a national sleep foundation survey, around 31 million Americans are sleep deprived. They also say women need more sleep than men and are being short-changed. Below are the five number summaries for the number of hours of sleep at night based on a survey of American men and women. Men: 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7.5, 9 Women: 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8 Write a sentence to compare men versus women in terms of the interquartile range for the amount of sleep at night. | back 16 Answer: Based on the survey, about 50% of the men get between 6 and 7.5 hours of sleep at night, while the interquartile range for women is from 5 to 7 hours of sleep. |

front 17 According to a national sleep foundation survey, around 31 million Americans are sleep deprived. They also say women need more sleep than men and are being short-changed. Below are the five number summaries for the number of hours of sleep at night based on a survey of American men and women. Men: 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7.5, 9 Women: 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8 What percent of women sleep at least 6 hours at night? What percent of men do so? | back 17 Answer: Based on the survey, about 50% of the women get at least 6 hours of sleep at night, while 75% of men do so. |

front 18 A list of 5 pulse rates is: 70, 64, 80, 74, 92. What is the median for this list? A. 74 B. 76 C. 77 D. 80 | back 18 Answer: A |

front 19 Which one of the following statements is most correct about a skewed dataset? A. The mean and median will usually be different. B. The mean and median will usually be the same. C. The mean will always be higher than the median. D. Whether the mean and median are the same depends on whether the data set is skewed to the right or to the left. | back 19 Answer: A |

front 20 Listed below is a stem-and-leaf plot of the times it took 13 students to drink a 12 ounce beverage. Values for stems represent seconds and values for leaves represent tenths of a second. 3| 1234 3| 5 4| 0 5| 6 6| 11379 7| 8| 2 What was the median time to drink the beverage? A. 3.5 seconds. B. 4.0 seconds. C. 5.6 seconds. D. 6.9 seconds. | back 20 Answer: C |

front 21 Listed below is a stem-and-leaf plot of the times it took 13 students to drink a 12 ounce beverage. Values for stems represent seconds and values for leaves represent tenths of a second. 3| 1234 3| 5 4| 0 5| 6 6| 11379 7| 8| 2 The lower quartile is A. 3.1 seconds. B. 3.35 seconds. C. 3.4 seconds. D. 3.5 seconds. | back 21 Answer: B |

front 22 Listed below is a stem-and-leaf plot of the times it took 13 students to drink a 12 ounce beverage. Values for stems represent seconds and values for leaves represent tenths of a second. 3| 1234 3| 5 4| 0 5| 6 6| 11379 7| 8| 2 The upper quartile is A. 6.9 seconds. B. 6.5 seconds. C. 6.1 seconds. D. 5.6 seconds. | back 22 Answer: B |

front 23 Which of the following would indicate that a dataset is skewed to the right? A. The interquartile range is larger than the range. B. The range is larger than the interquartile range. C. The mean is much larger than the median. D. The mean is much smaller than the median. | back 23 Answer: C |

front 24 An outlier is a data value that A. is larger than 1 million. B. equals the minimum value in a set of data. C. equals the maximum value in a set of data. D. is not consistent with the bulk of the data. | back 24 Answer: D |

front 25 Which statistic is not resistant to an outlier in the data? A. Lower quartile B. Upper quartile C. Median D. Mean | back 25 Answer: D |

front 26 Which one of these statistics is unaffected by outliers? A. Interquartile range B. Mean C. Standard deviation D. Range | back 26 Answer: A |

front 27 Which one of the following statistics would be affected by an outlier? A. Median B. Standard deviation C. Lower quartile D. Upper quartile | back 27 Answer: B |

front 28 Which of the following could account for an outlier in a dataset? A. Natural variability in the measurement of interest. B. Recording the wrong category for an individual's value of a categorical variable. C. A symmetric distribution for the measurement of interest. D. Measuring more than one variable for each individual. | back 28 Answer: A |

front 29 Determine whether the following statement is true or false and explain your answer: Outliers cause complications in all statistical analyses. | back 29 False, outliers do affect some statistics such as means and standard deviations. However, there are appropriate measures of location and spread if outliers are present and cannot be discarded, namely, the median and the interquartile range. |

front 30 Determine whether the following statement is true or false and explain your answer: Since outliers cause complications in statistical analyses, they should be discarded before computing summaries such as the mean and the standard deviation. | back 30 False. Although outliers do affect summaries such as the mean and standard deviation, they should never be discarded without justification. |

front 31 What is a reasonable action if an outlier is a legitimate data value and represents natural variability for the group and variable measured? | back 31 The value should not be discarded; in fact, it may be one of the more interesting values in the data set. |

front 32 What is a reasonable action if an outlier was a mistake made in measuring the object? | back 32 The value should be corrected if possible or discarded if not possible to correct it. |

front 33 What is a reasonable action if an outlier is the value for the only young subject in a sample where all of the other values were for older subjects? | back 33 The value should be discarded and the results summarized and reported for the older subjects only. |

front 34 Which choice lists two statistics that give information only about the location of a dataset and not the spread? A. IQR and standard deviation B. Mean and standard deviation C. Median and range D. Mean and median | back 34 Answer: D |

front 35 Which of the following measures is not a measure of spread? A. Variance B. Standard deviation C. Interquartile range D. Median | back 35 Answer: D |

front 36 Which one of the following summary statistics is not a measure of the variation (spread) in a data set? A. Median B. Standard deviation C. Range D. Interquartile range | back 36 Answer: A |

front 37 The head circumference (in centimeters) of 15 college-age males was obtained, resulting in the following measurements: 55, 56, 56, 56.5, 57, 57, 57, 57.5, 58, 58, 58, 58.5, 59, 59, 63. If the last measurement (63 cm's) were incorrectly recorded as 73, which one of the following statistics would change? A. Q1 (1st quartile) B. Standard deviation C. Median D. Q3 (3rd quartile) | back 37 Answer: B |

front 38 Which of the following is true about the relationship between the standard deviation s and the range for a large bell-shaped data set? A. The range is approximately 1/2 of a standard deviation. B. The range is approximately 2 standard deviations. C. The range is approximately 6 standard deviations. D. The range is approximately 1/6 of a standard deviation | back 38 Answer: C |

front 39 By inspection, determine which of the following sets of numbers has the smallest standard deviation. A. 2,3,4,5 B. 4,4,4,5 C. 0,0,5,5 D. 5,5,5,5 | back 39 Answer: D |

front 40 The mean hours of sleep that students get per night is 7 hours, the standard deviation of hours of sleep is 1.7 hours, and the distribution is approximately normal. Complete the following sentence. For about 95% of students, nightly amount of sleep is between ______. A. 5.3 and 8.7 hrs B. 5and9hrs C. 3.6 and 10.4 hrs D. 1.9 and 12.1 hrs | back 40 Answer: C |

front 41 For a large sample of blood pressure values, the mean is 120 and the standard deviation is 10. Assuming a bell- shaped curve, which interval is likely to be about the interval that contains 95% of the blood pressures in the sample? A. 110 to 130 B. 100 to 140 C. 90 to 150 D. 50 to 190 | back 41 Answer: B |

front 42 For a large sample of blood pressure values, the mean is 120 and the standard deviation is 10. Assuming a bell- shaped curve, which interval is likely to be about the interval from the minimum to maximum blood pressures in the sample? A.120 to 150 B. 110 to 130 C. 90 to 150 D. 50 to 190 | back 42 Answer: C |

front 43 78. Which of the following would indicate that a dataset is not bell-shaped? A. The range is equal to 5 standard deviations. B. The range is larger than the interquartile range. C. The mean is much smaller than the median. D. There are no outliers. | back 43 Answer: C |

front 44 - The possible values for a standardized score (z-score) A. can be any number: positive, negative, or 0. B. must be within the range from -3 to 3 C. must be non-negative. D. must be strictly positive.
| back 44 Answer: A |

front 45 Which of the following best describes the standardized (z) score for an observation? A. It is the number of standard deviations the observation falls from the mean. B. It is the most common score for that type of observation. C. It is one standard deviation more than the observation. D. It is the center of the list of scores from which the observation was taken. | back 45 Answer: A |

front 46 Scores on an achievement test averaged 70 with a standard deviation
of 10. Serena's score was 85. What was her standardized score (also
called a z-score)? C. 15 D. 85 | back 46 Answer: B |

front 47 Suppose that amount spent by students on textbooks this semester has approximately a bell- shaped distribution. The mean amount spent was $300 and the standard deviation is $100. Which choice best completes the following sentence? About 68% of students spent between ____. A. $300 and $400 B. $200 and $400 C. $100 and $500 D. $266 and $334 | back 47 Answer: B |

front 48 Suppose that amount spent by students on textbooks this semester has approximately a bell- shaped distribution. The mean amount spent was $300 and the standard deviation is $100. What amount spent on textbooks has a standardized score equal to 0.5? A. $150 B. $250 C. $300.50 D. $350 | back 48 Answer: D |

front 49 Suppose that amount spent by students on textbooks this semester has approximately a bell- shaped distribution. The mean amount spent was $300 and the standard deviation is $100. What percent of students spent more than $350? A. 50% B. 0.5% C. 69.15% D. 30.85% | back 49 Answer: D |

front 50 A student spent $500 on textbooks. What percentile does their value correspond to? A. 97.5th percentile B. 95th percentile C. 5th percentile D. 2.5th percentile | back 50 Answer: A |

front 51 Explain the difference between the population standard deviation | back 51 The population standard deviation is a measure of spread in the population and is a parameter (fixed value, usually unknown). The sample standard deviation is an estimate of the population standard deviation and is a statistic. |

front 52 For each of the following numerical summaries, decide whether it is a resistant statistic or not: mean, median, standard deviation, range, interquartile range. | back 52 Resistant statistics would include the median and the interquartile range. Non-resistant statistics would include the mean, the standard deviation, and the range. |

front 53 Suppose that the average height for college men is 66 inches. If the height distribution is bell-shaped, and 95% of the men have heights between 60 inches and 72 inches, what is the standard deviation of heights for this population? | back 53 3 inches |

front 54 The average rainfall during the month of November in San Francisco, California, is 2.62 inches. The standard deviation is 2.79 inches. What is the standardized score (z-score) for 5.18 inches, the rainfall in San Francisco during November 2001? | back 54 .918 |

front 55 The average rainfall during the month of November in San Francisco, California, is 2.62 inches. The standard deviation is 2.79 inches. What is the standardized score (z-score) for 11.78 inches, the rainfall in San Francisco during November 1885? | back 55 3.28 |

front 56 The average rainfall during the month of November in San Francisco, California, is 2.62 inches. The standard deviation is 2.79 inches. What is the standardized score (z-score) for 1 inch of rain in November? | back 56 -.581 |

front 57 Suppose that the average number of years to graduate at a university is 4 years, with a standard deviation of 0.5 years. Assume a bell-shaped distribution for years to graduate. From the Empirical Rule, what is a range of values that 68% of the students should graduate between? | back 57 3.5 to 4.5 years |

front 58 Suppose that the average number of years to graduate at a university is 4 years, with a standard deviation of 0.5 years. Assume a bell-shaped distribution for years to graduate. From the Empirical Rule, what is a range of values that 95% of the students should graduate between? | back 58 3 to 5 years |

front 59 Suppose that the average number of years to graduate at a university is 4 years, with a standard deviation of 0.5 years. Assume a bell-shaped distribution for years to graduate. From the Empirical Rule, what is a range of values that 99.7% of the students should graduate between? | back 59 2.5 to 5.5 years |