35 notecards = 9 pages (4 cards per page)
Describe how the third line of defense is different than the other two.
-acquired and specific
List the 4 stages of a specific immune response.
-lymphocyte development and differentiation
Discuss four major immune functions of cell markers.
-attachment to nonself or foreign markers
Describe the major histocompatibility complex in two sentences.
(MHC) is a set of genes that code for human cell receptors and gives rise to a series of glycoproteins found on all cells except RBCs. They also allow the presentation of antigen to T-Lymphocytes (both CD-4 and CD-8 cells).
Contrast the way T cells recognize antigen with the way B cells do.
-B cells have receptors that bind all antigens
Summarize the maturation process of both B cells and T cells.
Both are produced in the bone marrow
Outline the processes of clonal selection and expansion.
During the Antigen Independent period, stem cells produce many immature lymphocytes which get receptors specific to antigens. Clones that respond to self antigens (autoantigens) are eliminated during “clonal deletion”. From the “repertoire” of lymphocytes (each responding to a different antigen) a single clone which responds to a particular antigen will be activated and will proliferate (make many copies) and differentiate (make different subsets of cells)
Describe the B-cell receptor and the T-cell receptor.
-T cells have two subunits which each include a variable region which extends out of the cell membrane and a constant region which anchors the receptors to the cell membrane.
-any substance that causes your body to react with an immune response
-any substance that induces a state of sensitivity or resistance after processing by the immune system
-the part of an antigen that defines its specificity and triggers the immune response
List characteristics of antigens that optimize their immunogenicity.
-Shape or type of molecule – usually a protein or having some peptide sequence
List the types of cells that can act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
Diagram the steps in the B cell response.
1. binding of antigen
Make a detailed drawing of an antibody molecule.
Explain the six antibody functions.
1.Opsinizaiton: encourage the uptake of the microbe by phagocytes
Describe the memory response.
memory cells retain the memory of the infx so that if the infx ever happens again, these cells immediately begins to clone itself so that the infx does not spread.
List the three major types of cells that T cells will differentiate into after stimulation.
-T(H)1: CD4, requires MHC-II for activation
Explain how TC cells kill other cells.
-Macrophages/Dendritic cells engulf, process, and present antigen on their MHC-I molecules -Virally infected cells present viral antigens in their MHC-I molecules
List and define the four different descriptors of specific immune states.
-active: exposed to antigens
Discuss the qualities of an effective vaccine.
-low level of adverse SE
Name the two major categories of vaccines and then the subcategories under each.
-whole cells or viruses:
Discuss the pros and cons of killed (or inactivated) vs. attenuated vaccines.
inactivated vaccines are safer if less effective than attenuated vaccines
Describe the principle behind DNA vaccines.
Combining the genes for the antigens with a plasmid and either inserting the plasmid or inserting a yeast cell containing the plasmid into the patient. Production of antigen by the cells or yeast cells containing the plasmid will cause stimulation of an active immune response creating memory cells and antibodies to the antigen
Explain the principle of herd immunity.
collective immunity through mass immunization confers indirect protection on the nonimmune members
____ is acquired when a mother passes antibodies across the placenta to the fetus.
natural passive immunity
When antibodies clump whole cells together which type of antigen-antibody reaction occurs?
Which generation of vaccine is an acellular vaccine, such as the DTaP vaccine?
What is immunity through mass immunization indirectly protecting nonimmune members?
Which type of cells interact with the MHC class I molecules?
Which type of cells interact with the MHC class II molecules?
What type of cells contain the CD8 marker on their cell surface?
cytotoxic T Cells
____ directly kill virally infected cells and cancer cells by pumping them full of perforin, granzyme, and other toxins?
Which specific cells produce antibodies?
Which specific cell is most important for helping B cells to proliferate and differentiate?
T-Helper 2 cells