54 notecards = 14 pages (4 cards per page)
The basic unit of life which all living things are made of.
Organism composed of a single cell.
Organism composed of more than 1 cell.
Organization of a multicellular organism
1. All organisms are made of one or more cells.
A differentiated structure within a cell that performs a specific function.
A cell that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
A cell that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
A group of cells working together to perform a function
The 'brain' of the cell. Organelle that contains DNA and controls the functions of the cell.
Region of nucleus where ribosomes are produced.
Organelles that are the site of cellular respiration (process that
converts energy in glucose into useable energy, ATP)
Small organelles found in all cells, made of RNA and protein; sites
of protein synthesis.
A network of membranes in an eukaryotic cell that is interconnected
with the outer nuclear membrane that allow for transport of material.
Golgi Body or Golgi Apparatus
A membranous organelle in an eukaryotic cell that modifies, packages,
sorts and transports molecules of the cell.
A membrane-bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes to break down molecules in eukaryotic cells.
The organelle where photosynthesis occurs (process that converts solar energy into glucose); contains chlorophyll. NOT in animal cells.
A membrane-bound compartment that stores water, waste, and ions. NOT in animal cells.
A rigid structure surrounding a cell, outside the cell membrane, that
gives the cell support and shape; made of cellulose.
Prokaryotic unicellular organisms that generally live iin extreme habitats such as hot springs.
A prokaryotic unicellular organism.
How eukaryotes formed - organelles originated as independent prokaryotic cells and were engulfed by other prokaryotic cells.
Components of Cell Membrane
Membrane is fluid/flexible with components floating throughout.
Cell membrane allows some molecules to enter and leave the cell, but not all materials.
A collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function, such as stomach, small intestine.
Network of protein fibers inside of a cell to:
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
A structure that surrounds and supports cells made of proteins. In animal cells.
Movement of materials across a membrane that does NOT require energy from the cell. Movement of material with the concentration gradient (from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration).
Type of passive transport (does NOT require energy) in which atoms and molecules move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
Diffusion of water into or out of the cell. Form of passive transport (does NOT require energy. Moves from high water concentration to low water concentration.
Type of passive transport (does NOT require energy) that uses a
protein as a channel.
Movement of materials across a membrane that REQUIRES an input of energy from a cell. Movement of material against the concentration gradient (from LOW concentration to HIGH concentration).
A type of active transport (REQUIRES energy) used to bring materials into the cell using a vacuole.
A type of active transport (REQUIRES energy) used to move material out of the cell using a vacuole.
Maintains, by active transport, the resting potential of a nerve cell by pumping sodium ions (Na+) into a cell and potassium ions (K+) out of a cell to keep the interior of the cell negative in relation to the cell's external environment, which is positive. Reverses charges - interior becomes positive and exterior become negative when an action potential is activated sending a message down the nerve cell.
The electrical potential that exists in a nerve cell membrane when it is at rest (no signal). Maintained by the sodium potassium pump. Inside of cell is negatively charged while outside of the cell is positively charged.
Impulse from a nerve cell which causes resting potential to reverse - causes sodium (Na+) channels to open causing Na+ to rush into the cell. The inside of the cell becomes positively charged while the outside of the cell becomes negatively charged. Then returns to resting potential.
A chemical that transmits a nerve signal across a synapse. Released when action potential reaches end of nerve cell to send messages to other cells.
Space between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another neuron.
A group of organs that work together to perform a certain task, such as digestive system, nervous system etc.
An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium,
protist, or fungus.
Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane
Membrane that surrounds all cells and controls what enters and leaves the cell. Composed of 2 layers of phospholipids.
The construction of the cell membrane - 2 layers of phospholipids arranged where the polar heads point outwards and nonpolar tails point inwards.
Carrier or Transport Proteins
Proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane involved with facilitated diffusion and active transport.
The difference in concentration of molecules across a membrane.
A stable or balanced system. The number of solutes on each side are balanced.
A small organelle within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer membrane.
Movement of substances inside a cell.
Consists of the cytosol (liquid part of cell) and organelles in the cell, which includes everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus. Where metabolic processes occur in the cell.
Liquidy part of the cytoplasm.
Composed of sets of microtubules that help move arrange microtubules for cell division. Only found in animal cells.
Projections of microtubules in certain cells used for movement. Cilia are short fibers. Flagella are long fibers.
water loving, polar heads on phospholipids
water hating, nonpolar fatty acid chains on phospholipids