60 notecards = 15 pages (4 cards per page)
Reasons people make food choices...
taste, habit, ethnicity, convenience, emotions, social interactions, values, and health benefits.
6 classes of nutrients
water, minerals, lipids, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamins.
Nutrient vs. essential nutrient
Essential are nutrients that your body cannot make itself and regular nutrients are chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body for energy.
Does not contain carbon or pertaining to living things.
Substance containing carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Carbs, lipid, protein, vitamins
minerals and water
a type of food required in large amounts in the human diet
substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development.
Energy yielding nutrients
Carbs, fat, and protein.
Amount of kcals per gram from alcohol (not a nutrient)
Amount of kcals per gram from carbs
Amount of kcals per gram for protein
Amount of kcals per gram for fat
True/False: Minerals yield energy.
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
a nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a group
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a group
a value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people (used when an RDA cannot be determined)
Upper Intake Level (UL)
highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of harmful health effects to almost all individuals in the general population
AMDR for fat
AMDR for protein
AMDR for carbs
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
What product of digestion is NOT normally released directly into the bloodstream?
What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?
What stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?
What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?
What best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
What is the most metabolically active organ?
What is a feature of the lymphatic system?
Carries fats away from the intestines.
What is the primary function of the rectum?
Stores waste materials prior to evacuation
What is a bolus
Portion of food swallowed one at a time.
What is found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?
What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?
Textured vegetable protein is usually made from
According to the FDA, a food label that reads "improves memory" is an example of a
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.
REFINED grain products only contain the
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
In what food group are legumes found?
What term is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content?
Which of the following food groups is actually consumed in amounts greater than recommended by the USDA?
6 principles and guidelines
Adequacy, Balance, Calorie, Density, Moderation, Variety
"fat free" or "less sodium"
"Can help reduce the risk of cholesterol"
"supports immunity and digestive health"
around the kernel of the grain and is rich in nutrients and fiber.
contains starch and proteins
the seed that grows into a wheat plant, rich in vitamins and minerals.
inedible part of a grain.
Enriched vs. fortified.
Enriched is when lost nutrients are added back into the food and fortified is when nutrients that were never there are added to the food in order to enhance flavor.
organ that stores and concentrates bile.
GI Tract path in order
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.
4 muscular actions
perstalsis, segmentation, stomach action, and sphincter contractions.
Secretions are a mix of
water and enzymes
promote breaking water (hydrolysis) and are protein facilitators of chemical reactions.
Protein digestion begins...
in the gastric juice of the stomach.
Three absorption techniques
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.