126 notecards = 32 pages (4 cards per page)
Vitamin B12 deficiency is common among which age group?
Which of the following is not a sign of vitamin C deficiency?
c. thinning of skin due to collagen deficiency
Which of the following statements regarding riboflavin is incorrect?
Vitamin B12 is closely related to this B-vitamin; depending on the other for activation.
All of the following statements regarding vitamin B12 are true, except:
All of the following statements regarding vitamin B6 are true, except:
Which of the following factors may be involved in creating a secondary folate deficiency?
Which of the following statements regarding water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins is incorrect?
Which of the following is a factor that impacts vitamin bioavailability?
Which of the following statements regarding vitamins is false?
Which of the following statements regarding folate is false?
Which water-soluble vitamin deficiency results in pellagra?
Which of the following statement regarding fat-soluble vitamins is false?
Which of the following B-vitamins is part of the chemical structure of coenzyme A, has no UL, and a deficiency is believed to have caused the "burning feet" syndrome that affected prisoners of war in Asia during World War II?
When searching for a supplement, find one with the USP verification logo. This logo assures that the supplement:
Vitamin C can be found in many organs of the body. Which organ contains more vitamin C than any other organ in the body?
While biotin deficiencies rarely occur, the protein avidin, which binds to biotin preventing its absorption, is found in ________ .
raw egg whites
Which of the following people should not take high doses of vitamin C?
Which of the following stresses is known to increase vitamin C needs of the body?
Which of the following is a vitamin-like compound that can be made by the body from the amino acid methionine?
Deficiencies of single B vitamins seldom show up in isolation. However, it has occurred with which of the following B vitamins?
Which of the following is the best source of thiamin per kcalorie?
Of the B-vitamins listed below, which one does not form part of a coenzyme?
Dietary supplements are regulated by which governing body?
Folate may provide some protection from which of the following health conditions?
Which of the following foods provides the greatest amount of vitamin C?
b. red bell pepper
All of the following statements regarding niacin are true, except:
Of the following listed vitamins, which one is not a water-soluble vitamin?
a. Vita A
Which of the following statements regarding thiamin is incorrect?
Which of the following is not a role of vitamin C?
11. Which of the following statements regarding fat-soluble vitamin interaction is false?
11. Which of the following is a precursor for vitamin A?
11. ________ -tocopherol is the only tocopherol with vitamin E activity in the human body.
11. Two hydroxylation reactions must occur before vitamin D becomes fully active. Which organ(s) is/are responsible for the hydroxylation reactions?
kidneys and liver
11. Vitamin D's special role in bone health is to assist in the absorption of calcium and ________ .
11. In ________ , the bones fail to calcify normally, causing growth retardation and skeletal abnormalities in children.
11. Bacteria in the GI tract provide about ________ of a person's need for vitamin K.
11. Along with vitamin E, ________ is a key antioxidant nutrient.
11. Scientists have identified oxidative stress as a causative factor in the development of all of the following diseases, except:
11. Which of the following conversions of vitamin A compounds is reversible?
b. retinol to retinal
11. Which of the following factors may limit vitamin D synthesis?
11. Which of the following statements about vitamin A's role in vision is true?
11. Most vitamin A is stored in which organ?
11. Proteins needing vitamin K's assistance have been associated with which of the following bodily roles?
11. Vitamin A supplementation may be helpful in protecting against complications of ________ .
11. Which form of vitamin A is the major transport and storage form of the vitamin?
11. Vitamin ________ is the fat-soluble vitamin the body can synthesize.
11. Vitamin E is recognized for its many protective actions against chronic diseases. While toxicity is rare with vitamin E, the ________ carefully regulates body concentrations.
11. Newborn infants are given a single dose of vitamin ________ at birth by intramuscular injection because they are born with a sterile intestinal tract.
11. Which of the following statements is false regarding excessive intakes of vitamin A?
11. Which of the following statements about fat-soluble vitamins is false?
11. If a person were to stop eating vitamin A-containing foods, deficiency symptoms would not begin to appear until after stores were depleted; approximately ________ for a healthy adult.
11. Once synthesized, vitamin K is absorbed and stored in the ________ .
11. The ________ is covered by layers of epithelial cells.
11. About ________ percent of the U.S. population is either vitamin D deficient or their status is marginal.
11. Which of the following is the best source of vitamin A per kcalorie?
d. sweet potato
11. Which of the following statements regarding vitamin A's role in reproduction and growth is false?
11. Above ________ north latitude (and south latitude in the southern hemisphere), vitamin D synthesis essentially ceases for the four months of winter.
11. Which of the following is a major role of vitamin A?
11. Which of the following is not an environmental factor responsible for generating free radicals?
12. Hard water has high concentrations of ________ .
calcium and magnesium
12. Which of the following is the role of water in the body?
12. The DRI Committee set an Adequate Intake (AI) for total water which includes all of the following, except:
b. alcoholic beverages
12. Water is lost each day through:
12. Which statement regarding chloride is false?
12. Of the following symptoms, which one is not associated with potassium deficiency?
c. decrease in BP
12. Most people achieve peak bone mass by their late ________ .
12. Calcium absorption becomes more efficient during:
12. The body must excrete a minimum of about ________ cups of water each day, as urine, to carry away the waste products generated by a day's metabolic activities.
12. Which of the following is the role of calcium in the body?
12. Which of the following conditions may precipitate fluid and electrolyte imbalances resulting in a medical emergency?
12. ________ is a powerful vasoconstrictor that narrows the diameters of blood vessels, thereby raising blood pressure.
12. The Upper Level (UL) of sodium set for adults in the U.S. is ________ mg per day.
12. Which of the following statements regarding bone development and disintegration is false?
12. Which of the following statements regarding phosphorus is false?
12. The body needs more ________ each day than any other nutrient.
12. Which of the following is not a risk factor for osteoporosis?
b. high BMI
12. ________ is the most abundant mineral in the body.
12. This part of the brain controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite.
12. The acidity of the body's fluids is determined by the concentration of ________ ions.
12. Which of the following is not a role of magnesium in the body?
12. Which of the following electrolytes is not primarily found inside cells?
12. Whenever blood calcium falls too low or rises too high, three organ systems respond: the bones, kidneys, and ________ .
12. Which of the following is a non-milk source of calcium?
f. oysters and almonds
12. Which of the following is not a symptom of hyponatremia?
12. Which fat-soluble vitamin is associated with bone health?
12. Which of the following statements regarding vitamins and minerals is false?
12. Which of the following is an age-related factor contributing to bone loss?
12. The body receives sulfate from the amino acids methionine and ________ .
12. The bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system is primarily under the control of the kidneys and ________ .
12. Which organ is central to the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure?
12. Which of the following is a role of sodium?
12. The fluid found between each cell is called ________ fluid.
12. Which of the following statements is true?
13. The iron-storage protein ________ captures iron from food and stores it in the cells of the small intestine.
13. Iodine is an integral part of the thyroid hormones that regulate ________ .
13. ________ is the oxygen-carrying protein of the red blood cells and accounts for 80% of the body's iron.
13. Which of the following enhances nonheme iron absorption from foods?
c. MFP and vitamin C
13. Which of the following statements about iron recommendations is false?
13. Which of the following statements regarding iron deficiency is false?
d. all are false
13. Which of the following is not a dietary source of selenium?
13. Without adequate iron, energy metabolism in the cells falters. Which of the following is not a resulting symptom of inadequate iron?
13. Which of the following statements regarding trace mineral interactions is true?
13. Selenium can substitute for ________ in the amino acids methionine, cysteine, and cystine.
13. The recycling of zinc in the body occurs from the ________ to the small intestine and back again.
13. Which of the following is the role of zinc in the body?
13. Which of the following statements regarding fluoride is false?
13. Which of the following statements regarding trace minerals is false?
13. Of the following groups, which is not at high risk for iron deficiency?
13. Virtually all cells contain zinc, but the highest concentrations are found in the muscles and ________ .
13. Some of the signs and symptoms of iron overload are similar to those of ________ deficiency.
13. Surplus iron is stored in the protein ferritin in all of the following, except:
13. ________ deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world.
13. ________ can have profound physiological effects – acting as antioxidants, mimicking hormones, stimulating enzymes, destroying bacteria, and interfering with DNA replication.
13. Which of the following is not an effect of zinc deficiency?
Iron can switch back and forth between two ionic states. As a result, it can serve the body in which of the following ways?
13. Which of the following bodily functions does copper play a role?
13. Of the following behaviors, which one increases iron absorption from supplements?
13. Many of the symptoms associated with iron deficiency are easily mistaken for ________ problems.
13. Which of the following is a molybdenum-rich food?
13. Which of the following foods is not a good source of iron?
13. Which of the following statements regarding manganese is false?
13. Lead is chemically similar to ________ and displaces ________ from some metabolic sites rendering ________ unable to perform its role in the body.
13. Chromium is an essential mineral that participates in ________ metabolism.
a. carbohydrate and fat
Which of the following is not an example of a functional food?
a. all of these choices are functional foods
13. The iron overload disorder known as hemochromatosis is usually caused by ________ .