102 notecards = 26 pages (4 cards per page)
The process of "leveling and windowing" of digital images determines the image
The relationship between the intensity of light striking a film and the intensity of light transmitted through the film is an expression of which of the following?
As the CR laser scanner/reader recognizes the phosphostimulated luminescence (PSL) released by the PSP storage plate, it constructs a graphic representation of pixel value distribution called a
The function(s) of the developer in film processing is (are) to
Cassetteless digital systems have a fixed spatial resolution determined by:
Which of the following statements regarding dual x-ray absorptiometry is (are) true?
Which section of the automatic processor shown in Figure 6–9 is associated with preservation of the x-ray image?
Due to the high sensitivity of digital detectors to low intensity radiation (background, scatter and/or off-focus radiation), there is likely to be scatter and off-focus radiation contributing to the image outside the collimation margins. Since many radiologists find this distracting, the most appropriate radiographer action would be to:
The luminescent light emitted by the PSP is transformed into the image seen on the CRT by the
Which of the two film emulsions illustrated in Figure 4–11 requires more exposure to produce at density of 1.75?
A change from 400-speed screens to 200-speed screens would require what change in milliampere-seconds?
Histogram data that is skewed relative to the values of interest (VOI) of the histogram analysis used for a particular exam may be caused by all of the following, except:
Which of the following affects both radiographic density and intensifying screen speed?
An exposed image plate will retain its original image quality for about
The radiograph in Figure 6–12 could be improved in which of the following ways?
The pre-contrast image used to subtract pixel values from the post-contrast image showing contrast-filled blood vessels in digital subtraction angiography is called the:
What effect will a stained intensifying screen have on the finished radiograph?
The presence of dust or scratches on intensifying screens will cause
Unopened boxes of radiographic film should be stored away from radiation and
An important feature of the pixel in a flat-panel TFT digital detector active matrix array is the:
Which of the following is (are) tested as part of a quality assurance (QA) program?
Which of the following is (are) methods used for x-ray film silver reclamation?
Factors that contribute to film fog include
Silver reclamation may be accomplished in which of the following ways?
In which section of the automatic processor shown in Figure 7–9 are the exposed silver halide crystals changed to black metallic silver?
Which of the following possesses the widest dynamic range?
Which of the following requires two exposures to evaluate focal-spot accuracy?
Figure 4–24 is representative of
Exposure-type artifacts include
The term windowing describes the practice of
All of the following are potential digital pre-processing problems, except:
Which of the following contribute(s) to base-plus fog?
While indirect digital detectors use a scintillator (phosphor) to convert X-ray energy, direct detectors use a:
A wire-mesh test is performed to evaluate screen
The term spectral matching refers to the fact that film sensitivity must be matched with the
Which of the following materials may be used as grid interspace material?
What information, located on each box of film, is important to note and has a direct relationship to image quality?
Boxes of film stored in too warm an area may be subject to
The function of the developer solution chemicals is to
When a slow screen–film system is used with a fast screen–film AEC system, the resulting images
Geometric blur can be evaluated using all the following devices except
Which of the two sensitometric curves shown in Figure 7–8 requires more exposure to produce a density of 2.0 on the finished radiograph?
The X-ray scintillator layer used in in direct flat-panel digital
detectors is usually either _____________ or ______________.
The cause of films coming from the automatic processor still damp can be
The functions of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) include
The changes between the images shown in Figure 4–7 represent changes made to
Incorrect spectral matching between rare earth intensifying screens and film emulsion results in
During measurement of blood pressure, which of the following occurs as the radiographer controls arterial tension with the sphygmomanometer?
The purpose of the automatic processor's transport system is to
Which of the lines indicated in Figure 7–1 correctly demonstrates the relationship between the exposure received by the PSP and its resulting luminescence as it is laser scanned?
"Saturation" of an image in CR means that:
Which of the following can cause poor screen–film contact?
X-ray film emulsion is most sensitive to safelight fog
Off-focus and scatter radiation outside of the exposure field when using CR can cause:
Inadequate collimation in CR imaging can result in an image that is too
Exposed silver halide crystals are changed to black metallic silver by the
Which of the following can affect the amount of developer replenisher delivered per film in an automatic processor?
Before a flat-panel detector can be used for a radiographic exposure, it must be prepared. This preparation is referred to as:
The device used to give film emulsion a predetermined exposure in order to test its response to processing is called the
A fill factor of 80% in direct or indirect digital radiography means that:
A film emulsion having wide latitude is likely to exhibit
The chest radiograph shown in Figure 4–1 demonstrates
The optimal alignment of the anatomical part being imaged for all digital receptors should be:
The x-ray tube used in CT must be capable of
Sampling frequency in computed radiography (CR) is expressed as:
An unexposed and processed film will have a density of about
With a given exposure, as intensifying screen speed increases, how is radiographic density affected?
Which of the following is the correct order of radiographic film processing?
If obtaining multiple images on one image plate, it is important to:
Base-plus fog is a result of
Component part(s) of x-ray film include which of the following?
Resolution in CR increases as
Pixel size and spacing determine the spatial resolution of the digital image. This is known as:
Which of the following digital post-processing methods remove high-frequency noise from the image?
The safe approach to avoid an exposure field recognition error when using CR is to:
A film emerging from the automatic processor exhibits excessive density. This might be attributable to the following
Film base is currently made of which of the following materials?
The device shown in Figure 4–16 is used for
Which of the following is an abnormal intensifying screen action?
What information must be included on an x-ray image for it to be considered as legitimate legal evidence?
Characteristics of DR imaging include
Chemical fog may be attributed to
The artifacts on the radiograph shown in Figure 4–25 are called
In digital imaging, the maximum spatial resolution is equal to:
For the same FOV, spatial resolution will be improved using
The processor rollers that are out of solution and function to transfer the film from one solution to another are the
In which section of the automatic processor seen in the figure below are the unexposed silver halide crystals removed from the emulsion?
When radiographing a cross-table lateral hip or axial shoulder using CR, one method of creating a collimation margin at the bottom of the radiograph is to:
The automatic film processor's recirculation system functions to
The instrument that is used frequently in quality-control programs to measure varying degrees of x-ray exposure is the
What determines the quantity of fluorescent light emitted from a fluorescent screen?
What is the purpose of the thin layer of lead that is often located behind the rear intensifying screen in an IR?
All of the following are factors that cause low contrast in CR images, except:
The smallest digital detectors (approximately 100 microns) provide the best spatial resolution and, therefore, are best-suited for use in:
IRs/cassettes frequently have a lead-foil layer behind the rear screen that functions to
Objectionable widening of the histogram in CR can be caused by all of the following, except:
One reason why only one image is preferred per image plate is:
A QA program serves to
As the conversion efficiency of intensifying-screen phosphors increases,
Which apparatus is needed for the construction of a sensitometric curve?
In order to avoid background radiation artifacts when using CR, it is important to:
Phosphors suitable for use in intensifying screens should have which of the following characteristics?